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Solid geometry: Book 11 Proposition 14


Πρὸς ἃ ἐπίπεδα ἡ αὐτὴ εὐθεῖα ὀρθή ἐστιν, παράλληλα ἔσται τὰ ἐπίπεδα. Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐπιπέδων πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι παράλληλά ἐστι τὰ ἐπίπεδα. Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἐκβαλλόμενα συμπεσοῦνται. συμπιπτέτωσαν: ποιήσουσι δὴ κοινὴν τομὴν εὐθεῖαν. ποιείτωσαν τὴν ΗΘ, καὶ εἰλήφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΘ τυχὸν σημεῖον τὸ Κ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΚ, ΒΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΒ ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς τὸ ΕΖ ἐπίπεδον, καὶ πρὸς τὴν ΒΚ ἄρα εὐθεῖαν οὖσαν ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἐκβληθέντι ἐπιπέδῳ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ: ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΚ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΚ ὀρθή ἐστιν. τριγώνου δὴ τοῦ ΑΒΚ αἱ δύο γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΚ, ΒΑΚ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς εἰσιν ἴσαι: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα τὰ ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐπίπεδα ἐκβαλλόμενα συμπεσοῦνται: παράλληλα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐπίπεδα. Πρὸς ἃ ἐπίπεδα ἄρα ἡ αὐτὴ εὐθεῖα ὀρθή ἐστιν, παράλληλά ἐστι τὰ ἐπίπεδα: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Planes to which the same straight line is at right angles will be parallel. For let any straight line AB be at right angles to each of the planes CD, EF; I say that the planes are parallel. For, if not, they will meet when produced. Let them meet; they will then make, as common section, a straight line. [XI. 3] Let them make GH; let a point K be taken at random on GH, and let AK, BK be joined. Now, since AB is at right angles to the plane EF, therefore AB is also at right angles to BK which is a straight line in the plane EF produced; [XI. Def. 3] therefore the angle ABK is right. For the same reason the angle BAK is also right. Thus, in the triangle ABK, the two angles ABK, BAK are equal to two right angles: which is impossible. [I. 17] Therefore the planes CD, EF will not meet when produced; therefore the planes CD, EF are parallel. [XI. Def. 8]