If a number be that part of a number, which a number subtracted is of a number subtracted, the remainder will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole is of the whole.

Ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ, ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιρεθέντος, καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται, ὅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. Ἀριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρος ἔστω, ὅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Ὃ γὰρ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔστω καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ. καὶ ἐπεί, ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΓΗ, ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ. ὃ δὲ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὑπόκειται καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ: ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΗΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τοῦ ΓΔ: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΖ τῷ ΓΔ. κοινὸς ἀφῃρήσθω ὁ ΓΖ: λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΗΓ λοιπῷ τῷ ΖΔ ἐστιν ἴσος. καὶ ἐπεί, ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος [ ἐστὶ ] καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΗΓ, ἴσος δὲ ὁ ΗΓ τῷ ΖΔ, ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΒ τοῦ ΖΔ. ἀλλὰ ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΒ τοῦ ΓΔ: καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If a number be that part of a number, which a number subtracted is of a number subtracted, the remainder will also be the same part of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. For let the number AB be that part of the number CD which AE subtracted is of CF subtracted; I say that the remainder EB is also the same part of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD. For, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also let EB be of CG. Now since, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also is EB of CG, therefore, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also is AB of GF. [VII. 5] But, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also, by hypothesis, is AB of CD; therefore, whatever part AB is of GF, the same part is it of CD also; therefore GF is equal to CD. Let CF be subtracted from each; therefore the remainder GC is equal to the remainder FD. Now since, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also is EB of GC, while GC is equal to FD, therefore, whatever part AE is of CF, the same part also is EB of FD. |