## Book VII, Proposition 8

If a number be the same parts of a number that a number subtracted is of a number subtracted, the remainder will also be the same parts of the remainder that the whole is of the whole.

 Ἐὰν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ μέρη ᾖ, ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ἀφαιρεθέντος, καὶ ὁ λοιπὸς τοῦ λοιποῦ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἔσται, ἅπερ ὁ ὅλος τοῦ ὅλου. Ἀριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ ΑΒ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη ἔστω, ἅπερ ἀφαιρεθεὶς ὁ ΑΕ ἀφαιρεθέντος τοῦ ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν, ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. Κείσθω γὰρ τῷ ΑΒ ἴσος ὁ ΗΘ. ἃ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΘ τοῦ ΓΔ, τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΕ τοῦ ΓΖ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΗΘ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΔ μέρη τὰ ΗΚ, ΚΘ, ὁ δὲ ΑΕ εἰς τὰ τοῦ ΓΖ μέρη τὰ ΑΛ, ΛΕ: ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΗΚ, ΚΘ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΑΛ, ΛΕ. καὶ ἐπεί, ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΑΛ τοῦ ΓΖ, μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ, μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΑΛ. κείσθω τῷ ΑΛ ἴσος ὁ ΗΜ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΗΚ τοῦ ΓΔ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΗΜ τοῦ ΓΖ: καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. πάλιν ἐπεί, ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΕΛ τοῦ ΓΖ, μείζων δὲ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ ΓΖ, μείζων ἄρα καὶ ὁ ΘΚ τοῦ ΕΛ. κείσθω τῷ ΕΛ ἴσος ὁ ΚΝ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ ΚΘ τοῦ ΓΔ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ ΚΝ τοῦ ΓΖ: καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΝΘ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΚΘ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ λοιπὸς ὁ ΜΚ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ὤν, ὅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΗΚ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ: καὶ συναμφότερος ἄρα ὁ ΜΚ, ΝΘ τοῦ ΔΖ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν, ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΘΗ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ. ἴσος δὲ συναμφότερος μὲν ὁ ΜΚ, ΝΘ τῷ ΕΒ, ὁ δὲ ΘΗ τῷ ΒΑ: καὶ λοιπὸς ἄρα ὁ ΕΒ λοιποῦ τοῦ ΖΔ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν, ἅπερ ὅλος ὁ ΑΒ ὅλου τοῦ ΓΔ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If a number be the same parts of a number that a number subtracted is of a number subtracted, the remainder will also be the same parts of the remainder that the whole is of the whole. For let the number AB be the same parts of the number CD that AE subtracted is of CF subtracted; I say that the remainder EB is also the same parts of the remainder FD that the whole AB is of the whole CD. For let GH be made equal to AB. Therefore, whatever parts GH is of CD, the same parts also is AE of CF. Let GH be divided into the parts of CD, namely GK, KH, and AE into the parts of CF, namely AL, LE; thus the multitude of GK, KH will be equal to the multitude of AL, LE. Now since, whatever part GK is of CD, the same part also is AL of CF, while. CD is greater than CF, therefore GK is also greater than AL. Let GM be made equal to AL. Therefore, whatever part GK is of CD, the same part also is GM of CF; therefore also the remainder MK is the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK is of the whole CD. [VII. 7] Again, since, whatever part KH is of CD, the same part also is EL of CF, while CD is greater than CF, therefore HK is also greater than EL. Let KN be made equal to EL. Therefore, whatever part KH is of CD, the same part also is KN of CF; therefore also the remainder NH is the same part of the remainder FD that the whole KH is of the whole CD. [VII. 7] But the remainder MK was also proved to be the same part of the remainder FD that the whole GK is of the whole CD; therefore also the sum of MK, NH is the same parts of DF that the whole HG is of the whole CD.