## Book VII, Proposition 5

If a number be a part of a number, and another be the same part of another, the sum will also be the same part of the sum that the one is of the one.

 Ἐὰν ἀριθμός ἀριθμοῦ μέρος ᾖ, καὶ ἕτερος ἑτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ᾖ, καὶ συναμφότερος συναμφοτέρου τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἔσται, ὅπερ ὁ εἷς τοῦ ἑνός. Ἀριθμὸς γὰρ ὁ Α [ ἀριθμοῦ ] τοῦ ΒΓ μέρος ἔστω, καὶ ἕτερος ὁ Δ ἑτέρου τοῦ ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος, ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α, Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ, ΕΖ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ. Ἐπεὶ γάρ, ὃ μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ ὁ Δ τοῦ ΕΖ, ὅσοι ἄρα εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α, τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Δ. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΒΓ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Α ἴσους τοὺς ΒΗ, ΗΓ, ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τοὺς τῷ Δ ἴσους τοὺς ΕΘ, ΘΖ: ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΒΗ, ΗΓ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ, ΘΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσος ἐστὶν ὁ μὲν ΒΗ τῷ Α, ὁ δὲ ΕΘ τῷ Δ, καὶ οἱ ΒΗ, ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς Α, Δ ἴσοι. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ οἱ ΗΓ, ΘΖ τοῖς Α, Δ. ὅσοι ἄρα [ εἰσὶν ] ἐν τῷ ΒΓ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι τῷ Α, τοσοῦτοί εἰσι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ΒΓ, ΕΖ ἴσοι τοῖς Α, Δ. ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΒΓ τοῦ Α, τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ ΒΓ, ΕΖ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ Α, Δ. ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ὁ Α τοῦ ΒΓ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ συναμφότερος ὁ Α, Δ συναμφοτέρου τοῦ ΒΓ, ΕΖ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If a number be a part of a number, and another be the same part of another, the sum will also be the same part of the sum that the one is of the one. For let the number A be a part of BC, and another, D, the same part of another EF that A is of BC; I say that the sum of A, D is also the same part of the sum of BC, EF that A is of BC. For since, whatever part A is of BC, D is also the same part of EF, therefore, as many numbers as there are in BC equal to A, so many numbers are there also in EF equal to D. Let BC be divided into the numbers equal to A, namely BG, GC, and EF into the numbers equal to D, namely EH, HF; then the multitude of BG, GC will be equal to the multitude of EH, HF. And, since BG is equal to A, and EH to D, therefore BG, EH are also equal to A, D. For the same reason GC, HF are also equal to A, D. Therefore, as many numbers as there are in BC equal to A, so many are there also in BC, EF equal to A, D. Therefore, whatever multiple BC is of A, the same multiple also is the sum of BC, EF of the sum of A, D.