Book 13 Proposition 5
Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τμηθῇ, καὶ προστεθῇ αὐτῇ ἴση τῷ μείζονι τμήματι, ἡ ὅλη εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθεῖα. Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ σημεῖον, καὶ ἔστω μεῖζον τμῆμα ἡ ΑΓ, καὶ τῇ ΑΓ ἴση [κείσθω] ἡ ΑΔ. λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΔΒ εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Α, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τὸ ΑΕ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΒ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Γ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ ΑΓ. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ τὸ ΓΕ, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ τὸ ΓΘ: ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΓΕ τῷ ΘΓ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΕ, τῷ δὲ ΘΓ ἴσον τὸ ΔΘ: καὶ τὸ ΔΘ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΘΕ [κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ΘΒ]. ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΔΚ ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΕ ἐστιν ἴσον. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΔΚ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔ, ΔΑ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΔΛ: τὸ δὲ ΑΕ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΔΒ τῆς ΒΑ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῆς ΑΔ. Ἡ ἄρα ΔΒ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέμηται κατὰ τὸ Α, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If a straight line be cut in extreme and mean ratio, and there be added to it a straight line equal to the greater segment, the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio, and the original straight line is the greater segment. For let the straight line AB be cut in extreme and mean ratio at the point C, let AC be the greater segment, and let AD be equal to AC. I say that the straight line DB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at A, and the original straight line AB is the greater segment. For let the square AE be described on AB, and let the figure be drawn. Since AB has been cut in extreme and mean ratio at C, therefore the rectangle AB, BC is equal to the square on AC. [VI. Def. 3, VI. 17] And CE is the rectangle AB, BC, and CH the square on AC; therefore CE is equal to HC. But HE is equal to CE, and DH is equal to HC; therefore DH is also equal to HE. Therefore the whole DK is equal to the whole AE. And DK is the rectangle BD, DA, for AD is equal to DL; and AE is the square on AB; therefore the rectangle BD, DA is equal to the square on AB. Therefore, as DB is to BA, so is BA to AD. [VI. 17] And DB is greater than BA; therefore BA is also greater than AD. [V. 14]