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Book 10 Proposition 6

180v-181r

180v-181r

181v-182r

181v-182r

Ἐὰν δύο μεγέθη πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχῃ, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν, σύμμετρα ἔσται τὰ μεγέθη. Δύο γὰρ μεγέθη τὰ Α, Β πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἐχέτω, ὃν ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ πρὸς ἀριθμὸν τὸν Ε: λέγω, ὅτι σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ Α, Β μεγέθη. Ὅσαι γάρ εἰσιν ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδες, εἰς τοσαῦτα ἴσα διῃρήσθω τὸ Α, καὶ ἑνὶ αὐτῶν ἴσον ἔστω τὸ Γ: ὅσαι δέ εἰσιν ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδες, ἐκ τοσούτων μεγεθῶν ἴσων τῷ Γ συγκείσθω τὸ Ζ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν, ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ Δ μονάδες, τοσαῦτά εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ Α μεγέθη ἴσα τῷ Γ, ὃ ἄρα μέρος ἐστὶν ἡ μονὰς τοῦ Δ, τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ Γ τοῦ Α: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α, οὕτως ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ. μετρεῖ δὲ ἡ μονὰς τὸν Δ ἀριθμόν: μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ τὸ Γ τὸ Α. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Α, οὕτως ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Δ [ἀριθμόν], ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως ὁ Δ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὴν μονάδα. πάλιν ἐπεί, ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδες, τοσαῦτά εἰσι καὶ ἐν τῷ Ζ ἴσα τῷ Γ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Ζ, οὕτως ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Ε [ἀριθμόν]. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὴν μονάδα: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ἐστὶ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως καὶ πρὸς τὸ Ζ. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν Β, Ζ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον: ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Β τῷ Ζ. μετρεῖ δὲ τὸ Γ τὸ Ζ: μετρεῖ ἄρα καὶ τὸ Β. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸ Α: τὸ Γ ἄρα τὰ Α, Β μετρεῖ. σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο μεγέθη πρὸς ἄλληλα, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.

Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι, ἐὰν ὦσι δύο ἀριθμοί, ὡς οἱ Δ, Ε, καὶ εὐθεῖα, ὡς ἡ Α, δύνατόν ἐστι ποιῆσαι ὡς ὁ Δ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν Ε ἀριθμόν, οὕτως τὴν εὐθεῖαν πρὸς εὐθεῖαν. ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τῶν Α, Ζ μέση ἀνάλογον ληφθῇ, ὡς ἡ Β, ἔσται ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Ζ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β, τουτέστιν ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον. ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ Α πρὸς τὴν Ζ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ὁ Δ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν Ε ἀριθμόν: γέγονεν ἄρα καὶ ὡς ὁ Δ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν Ε ἀριθμόν, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α εὐθείας πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Β εὐθείας: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two magnitudes have to one another the ratio which a number has to a number, the magnitudes will be commensurable. For let the two magnitudes A, B have to one another the ratio which the number D has to the number E; I say that the magnitudes A, B are commensurable. For let A be divided into as many equal parts as there are units in D, and let C be equal to one of them; and let F be made up of as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in E. Since then there are in A as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in D, whatever part the unit is of D, the same part is C of A also; therefore, as C is to A, so is the unit to D. [VII. Def. 20] But the unit measures the number D; therefore C also measures A. And since, as C is to A, so is the unit to D, therefore, inversely, as A is to C, so is the number D to the unit. [cf. V. 7, Por.] Again, since there are in F as many magnitudes equal to C as there are units in E, therefore, as C is to F, so is the unit to E. [VII. Def. 20] But it was also proved that, as A is to C, so is D to the unit; therefore, ex aequali, as A is to F, so is D to E. [V. 22] But, as D is to E, so is A to B; therefore also, as A is to B, so is it to F also. [V. 11] Therefore A has the same ratio to each of the magnitudes B, F; therefore B is equal to F. [V. 9] But C measures F; therefore it measures B also. Further it measures A also; therefore C measures A, B. Therefore A is commensurable with B. Therefore etc.

Porism. From this it is manifest that, if there be two numbers, as D, E, and a straight line, as A, it is possible to make a straight line [F] such that the given straight line is to it as the number D is to the number E. And, if a mean proportional be also taken between A, F, as B, as A is to F, so will the square on A be to the square on B, that is, as the first is to the third, so is the figure on the first to that which is similar and similarly described on the second. [VI. 19, Por.] But, as A is to F, so is the number D to the number E; therefore it has been contrived that, as the number D is to the number E, so also is the figure on the straight line A to the figure on the straight line B.