Index ← Previous Next →

Triangles, parallels, and area: Book 1 Proposition 2


Πρὸς τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι. Ἔστω τὸ μὲν δοθὲν σημεῖον τὸ Α, ἡ δὲ δοθεῖσα εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΓ: δεῖ δὴ πρὸς τῷ Α σημείῳ τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ ἴσην εὐθεῖαν θέσθαι. Ἐπεζεύχθω γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ Α σημείου ἐπὶ τὸ Β σημεῖον εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ συνεστάτω ἐπ' αὐτῆς τρίγωνον ἰσόπλευρον τὸ ΔΑΒ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν ἐπ' εὐθείας ταῖς ΔΑ, ΔΒ εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΕ, ΒΖ, καὶ κέντρῳ μὲν τῷ Β διαστήματι δὲ τῷ ΒΓ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΓΗΘ, καὶ πάλιν κέντρῳ τῷ Δ καὶ διαστήματι τῷ ΔΗ κύκλος γεγράφθω ὁ ΗΚΛ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ Β σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΓΗΘ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ Δ σημεῖον κέντρον ἐστὶ τοῦ ΚΛΗ κύκλου, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΛ τῇ ΔΗ, ὧν ἡ ΔΑ τῇ ΔΒ ἴση ἐστίν. λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΛ λοιπῇ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστὶν ἴση. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἴση: ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΛ, ΒΓ τῇ ΒΗ ἐστὶν ἴση. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα: καὶ ἡ ΑΛ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστὶν ἴση. Πρὸς ἄρα τῷ δοθέντι σημείῳ τῷ Α τῇ δοθείσῃ εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΓ ἴση εὐθεῖα κεῖται ἡ ΑΛ: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

To place at a given point (as an extremity) a straight line equal to a given straight line. Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight line. Thus it is required to place at the point A (as an extremity) a straight line equal to the given straight line BC. From the point A to the point B let the straight line AB be joined; [Post. 1] and on it let the equilateral triangle DAB be constructed. [I. 1] Let the straight lines AE, BF be produced in a straight line with DA, DB; [Post. 2] with centre B and distance BC let the circle CGH be described; [Post. 3] and again, with centre D and distance DG let the circle GKL be described. [Post. 3] Then, since the point B is the centre of the circle CGH, BC is equal to BG. Again, since the point D is the centre of the circle GKL, DL is equal to DG. And in these DA is equal to DB; therefore the remainder AL is equal to the remainder BG. [C.N. 3] But BC was also proved equal to BG; therefore each of the straight lines AL, BC is equal to BG. And things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another; [C.N. 1] therefore AL is also equal to BC. Therefore at the given point A the straight line AL is placed equal to the given straight line BC.