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Similar figures and proportions: Book 6 Definitions


α΄. Ὅμοια σχήματα εὐθύγραμμά ἐστιν, ὅσα τάς τε γωνίας ἴσας ἔχει κατὰ μίαν καὶ τὰς περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον.β΄. [Ἀντιπεπονθότα δὲ σχήματά ἐστιν, ὅταν ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν σχημάτων ἡγούμενοί τε καὶ ἑπόμενοι λόγοι ὦσιν.]γ΄. Ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον εὐθεῖα τετμῆσθαι λέγεται, ὅταν ᾖ ὡς ἡ ὅλη πρὸς τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα, οὕτως τὸ μεῖζον πρὸς τὸ ἔλαττον.δ΄. Ὕψος ἐστὶ παντὸς σχήματος ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν βάσιν κάθετος ἀγομένη.ε΄. [Λόγος ἐκ λόγων συγκεῖσθαι λέγεται, ὅταν αἱ τῶν λόγων πηλικότητες ἐφ' ἑαυτὰς πολλαπλασιασθεῖσαι ποιῶσί τινα.]

1. Similar rectilineal figures are such as have their angles severally equal and the sides about the equal angles proportional.2. [Reciprocally related figures. See Heath ii.189.]3. A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the greater segment, so is the greater to the less.4. The height of any figure is the perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base.5. [See Heath ii.18990.]