Index ← Previous Next →

Number theory: Book 9 Proposition 20


Οἱ πρῶτοι ἀριθμοὶ πλείους εἰσὶ παντὸς τοῦ προτεθέντος πλήθους πρώτων ἀριθμῶν. Ἔστωσαν οἱ προτεθέντες πρῶτοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, Γ: λέγω, ὅτι τῶν Α, Β, Γ πλείους εἰσὶ πρῶτοι ἀριθμοί. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ ὁ ὑπὸ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐλάχιστος μετρούμενος καὶ ἔστω ὁ ΔΕ, καὶ προσκείσθω τῷ ΔΕ μονὰς ἡ ΔΖ. ὁ δὴ ΕΖ ἤτοι πρῶτός ἐστιν ἢ οὔ. ἔστω πρότερον πρῶτος: εὑρημένοι ἄρα εἰσὶ πρῶτοι ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, Γ, ΕΖ πλείους τῶν Α, Β, Γ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ μὴ ἔστω ὁ ΕΖ πρῶτος: ὑπὸ πρώτου ἄρα τινὸς ἀριθμοῦ μετρεῖται. μετρείσθω ὑπὸ πρώτου τοῦ Η: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Η οὐδενὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἔστω. οἱ δὲ Α, Β, Γ τὸν ΔΕ μετροῦσιν: καὶ ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν ΔΕ μετρήσει. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ΕΖ: καὶ λοιπὴν τὴν ΔΖ μονάδα μετρήσει ὁ Η ἀριθμὸς ὤν: ὅπερ ἄτοπον. οὐκ ἄρα ὁ Η ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. καὶ ὑπόκειται πρῶτος. εὑρημένοι ἄρα εἰσὶ πρῶτοι ἀριθμοὶ πλείους τοῦ προτεθέντος πλήθους τῶν Α, Β, Γ οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Η: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Prime numbers are more than any assigned multitude of prime numbers. Let A, B, C be the assigned prime numbers; I say that there are more prime numbers than A, B, C. For let the least number measured by A, B, C be taken, and let it be DE; let the unit DF be added to DE. Then EF is either prime or not. First, let it be prime; then the prime numbers A, B, C, EF have been found which are more than A, B, C. Next, let EF not be prime; therefore it is measured by some prime number. [VII. 31] Let it be measured by the prime number G. I say that G is not the same with any of the numbers A, B, C. For, if possible, let it be so. Now A, B, C measure DE; therefore G also will measure DE. But it also measures EF. Therefore G, being a number, will measure the remainder, the unit DF: which is absurd. Therefore G is not the same with any one of the numbers A, B, C. And by hypothesis it is prime.