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Number theory: Book 9 Proposition 2


Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσι τετράγωνον, ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. Ἔστωσαν δύο ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τετράγωνον τὸν Γ ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Α, Β ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. Ὁ γὰρ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω: ὁ Δ ἄρα τετράγωνός ἐστιν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Γ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τετράγωνός ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ Γ, οἱ Δ, Γ ἄρα ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν. τῶν Δ, Γ ἄρα εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτει. καί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Γ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: καὶ τῶν Α, Β ἄρα εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτει. ἐὰν δὲ δύο ἀριθμῶν εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτῃ, ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν [οἱ] ἀριθμοί: οἱ ἄρα Α, Β ὅμοιοί εἰσιν ἐπίπεδοι: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two numbers by multiplying one another make a square number, they are similar plane numbers. Let A, B be two numbers, and let A by multiplying B make the square number C; I say that A, B are similar plane numbers. For let A by multiplying itself make D; therefore D is square. Now, since A by multiplying itself has made D, and by multiplying B has made C, therefore, as A is to B, so is D to C. [VII. 17] And, since D is square, and C is so also, therefore D, C are similar plane numbers. Therefore one mean proportional number falls between D, C. [VIII. 18] And, as D is to C, so is A to B; therefore one mean proportional number falls between A, B also. [VIII. 8]