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Fundamentals of number theory: Book 7 Proposition 30


Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα, τὸν δὲ γενόμενον ἐξ αὐτῶν μετρῇ τις πρῶτος ἀριθμός, καὶ ἕνα τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετρήσει. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους τὸν Γ ποιείτωσαν, τὸν δὲ Γ μετρείτω τις πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς ὁ Δ: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Δ ἕνα τῶν Α, Β μετρεῖ. Τὸν γὰρ Α μὴ μετρείτω: καί ἐστι πρῶτος ὁ Δ: οἱ Α, Δ ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ε. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ε μονάδας, ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν: ἴσος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ, Ε τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α, Β. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α, οὕτως ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Ε. οἱ δὲ Δ, Α πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα, τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἐὰν τὸν Β μὴ μετρῇ, τὸν Α μετρήσει. ὁ Δ ἄρα ἕνα τῶν Α, Β μετρεῖ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two numbers by multiplying one another make some number, and any prime number measure the product, it will also measure one of the original numbers. For let the two numbers A, B by multiplying one another make C, and let any prime number D measure C; I say that D measures one of the numbers A, B. For let it not measure A. Now D is prime; therefore A, D are prime to one another. [VII. 29] And, as many times as D measures C, so many units let there be in E. Since then D measures C according to the units in E, therefore D by multiplying E has made C. [VII. Def. 15] Further, A by multiplying B has also made C; therefore the product of D, E is equal to the product of A, B. Therefore, as D is to A, so is B to E. [VII. 19] But D, A are prime to one another, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least measure the numbers which have the same ratio the same number of times, the greater the greater and the less the less, that is, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] therefore D measures B. Similarly we can also show that, if D do not measure B, it will measure A.