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Fundamentals of number theory: Book 7 Proposition 18


Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμοὶ ἀριθμόν τινα πολλαπλασιάσαντες ποιῶσί τινας, οἱ γενόμενοι ἐξ αὐτῶν τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξουσι λόγον τοῖς πολλαπλασιάσασιν. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Α, Β ἀριθμόν τινα τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Δ, Ε ποιείτωσαν: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ὁ Α τὸν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, καὶ ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Α πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν. ἀριθμὸς δὴ ὁ Γ δύο ἀριθμοὺς τοὺς Α, Β πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Δ, Ε πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two numbers by multiplying any number make certain numbers, the numbers so produced will have the same ratio as the multipliers. For let two numbers A, B by multiplying any number C make D, E; I say that, as A is to B, so is D to E. For, since A by multiplying C has made D, therefore also C by multiplying A has made D. [VII. 16] For the same reason also C by multiplying B has made E. Therefore the number C by multiplying the two numbers A, B has made D, E.