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Constructions for inscribed and circumscribed figures: Book 4 Proposition 6


Εἰς τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. Ἔστω ὁ δοθεὶς κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓΔ: δεῖ δὴ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγράψαι. Ἤχθωσαν τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου δύο διάμετροι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀλλήλαις αἱ ΑΓ, ΒΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΔ, ΔΑ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ: κέντρον γὰρ τὸ Ε: κοινὴ δὲ καὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΕΑ, βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΒΓ, ΓΔ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ, ΑΔ ἴση ἐστίν: ἰσόπλευρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ὀρθογώνιον. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἡ ΒΔ εὐθεῖα διάμετρός ἐστι τοῦ ΑΒΓΔ κύκλου, ἡμικύκλιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΑΔ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ γωνία. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἑκάστη τῶν ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΔ, ΓΔΑ ὀρθή ἐστιν: ὀρθογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ τετράπλευρον. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἰσόπλευρον: τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστίν. καὶ ἐγγέγραπται εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓΔ κύκλον. Εἰς ἄρα τὸν δοθέντα κύκλον τετράγωνον ἐγγέγραπται τὸ ΑΒΓΔ: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι.

In a given circle to inscribe a square. Let ABCD be the given circle; thus it is required to inscribe a square in the circle ABCD. Let two diameters AC, BD of the circle ABCD be drawn at right angles to one another, and let AB, BC, CD, DA be joined. Then, since BE is equal to ED, for E is the centre, and EA is common and at right angles, therefore the base AB is equal to the base AD. [I. 4] For the same reason each of the straight lines BC, CD is also equal to each of the straight lines AB, AD; therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is equilateral. I say next that it is also right-angled. For, since the straight line BD is a diameter of the circle ABCD, therefore BAD is a semicircle; therefore the angle BAD is right. [III. 31] For the same reason each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDA is also right; therefore the quadrilateral ABCD is right-angled. But it was also proved equilateral; therefore it is a square; [I. Def. 22] and it has been inscribed in the circle ABCD.