# Book 9 Proposition 3

Ἐὰν κύβος ἀριθμὸς ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας ποιῇ τινα, ὁ γενόμενος κύβος ἔσται. Κύβος γὰρ ἀριθμὸς ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β ποιείτω: λέγω, ὅτι ὁ Β κύβος ἐστίν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τοῦ Α πλευρὰ ὁ Γ, καὶ ὁ Γ ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω. φανερὸν δή ἐστιν, ὅτι ὁ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, ὁ Γ ἄρα τὸν Δ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὑτῷ μονάδας. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ἡ μονὰς τὸν Γ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Γ, ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Γ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, ὁ Δ ἄρα τὸν Α μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Γ μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ μονὰς τὸν Γ κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Γ, ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Γ, ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Γ, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Α. τῆς ἄρα μονάδος καὶ τοῦ Α ἀριθμοῦ δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Γ, Δ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν, ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὑτῷ μονάδας. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ ἡ μονὰς τὸν Α κατὰ τὰς ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδας: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ μονὰς πρὸς τὸν Α, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. τῆς δὲ μονάδος καὶ τοῦ Α δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπεπτώκασιν ἀριθμοί: καὶ τῶν Α, Β ἄρα δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπεσοῦνται ἀριθμοί. ἐὰν δὲ δύο ἀριθμῶν δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτωσιν, ὁ δὲ πρῶτος κύβος ᾖ, καὶ ὁ δεύτερος κύβος ἔσται. καί ἐστιν ὁ Α κύβος: καὶ ὁ Β ἄρα κύβος ἐστίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If a cube number by multiplying itself make some number, the product will be cube. For let the cube number A by multiplying itself make B; I say that B is cube. For let C, the side of A, be taken, and let C by multiplying itself make D. It is then manifest that C by multiplying D has made A. Now, since C by multiplying itself has made D, therefore C measures D according to the units in itself. But further the unit also measures C according to the units in it; therefore, as the unit is to C, so is C to D. [VII. Def. 20] Again, since C by multiplying D has made A, therefore D measures A according to the units in C. But the unit also measures C according to the units in it; therefore, as the unit is to C, so is D to A. But, as the unit is to C, so is C to D; therefore also, as the unit is to C, so is C to D, and D to A. Therefore between the unit and the number A two mean proportional numbers C, D have fallen in continued proportion. Again, since A by multiplying itself has made B, therefore A measures B according to the units in itself. But the unit also measures A according to the units in it; therefore, as the unit is to A, so is A to B. [VII. Def. 20] But between the unit and A two mean proportional numbers have fallen; therefore two mean proportional numbers will also fall between A, B. [VIII. 8] But, if two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers, and the first be cube, the second will also be cube. [VIII. 23]