# Book 1 Proposition 32

Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Ἔστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΑΒ, ΑΒΓ, καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ, ΓΑΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Ἤχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ σημείου τῇ ΑΒ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ, καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν ἡ ΑΓ, αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΕ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΓΕ, καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ, ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση: ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΑΒΓ. Κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΓΑ, ΓΑΒ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἀλλ' αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν: καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ, ΓΒΑ, ΓΑΒ ἄρα δυσίν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία δυσὶ ταῖς ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ αἱ ἐντὸς τοῦ τριγώνου τρεῖς γωνίαι δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

In any triangle, if one of the sides be produced, the exterior angle is equal to the two interior and opposite angles, and the three interior angles of the triangle are equal to two right angles. Let ABC be a triangle, and let one side of it BC be produced to D; I say that the exterior angle ACD is equal to the two interior and opposite angles CAB, ABC, and the three interior angles of the triangle ABC, BCA, CAB are equal to two right angles. For let CE be drawn through the point C parallel to the straight line AB. [I. 31] Then, since AB is parallel to CE, and AC has fallen upon them, the alternate angles BAC, ACE are equal to one another. [I. 29] Again, since AB is parallel to CE, and the straight line BD has fallen upon them, the exterior angle ECD is equal to the interior and opposite angle ABC. [I. 29] But the angle ACE was also proved equal to the angle BAC; therefore the whole angle ACD is equal to the two interior and opposite angles BAC, ABC. Let the angle ACB be added to each; therefore the angles ACD, ACB are equal to the three angles ABC, BCA, CAB. But the angles ACD, ACB are equal to two right angles; [I. 13] therefore the angles ABC, BCA, CAB are also equal to two right angles. Therefore etc.