# Book 1 Proposition 13

Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα ἐπ' εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει. Εὐθεῖα γάρ τις ἡ ΑΒ ἐπ' εὐθεῖαν τὴν ΓΔ σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιείτω τὰς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ: λέγω, ὅτι αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΔ γωνίαι ἤτοι δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΒΔ, δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν. εἰ δὲ οὔ, ἤχθω ἀπὸ τοῦ Β σημείου τῇ ΓΔ [εὐθείᾳ] πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΒΕ: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν: καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΑΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἴσαι εἰσίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ ἴση ἐστίν, κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ τρισὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΕ, ΕΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἐδείχθησαν δὲ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ τρισὶ ταῖς αὐταῖς ἴσαι: τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ ἴσα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ἴσα: καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ ἄρα ταῖς ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσίν: ἀλλὰ αἱ ὑπὸ ΓΒΕ, ΕΒΔ δύο ὀρθαί εἰσιν: καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ, ΑΒΓ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. Ἐὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἐπ' εὐθεῖαν σταθεῖσα γωνίας ποιῇ, ἤτοι δύο ὀρθὰς ἢ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιήσει: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If a straight line set up on a straight line make angles, it will make either two right angles or angles equal to two right angles. For let any straight line AB set up on the straight line CD make the angles CBA, ABD; I say that the angles CBA, ABD are either two right angles or equal to two right angles. Now, if the angle CBA is equal to the angle ABD, they are two right angles. [Def. 10] But, if not, let BE be drawn from the point B at right angles to CD; [I. 11] therefore the angles CBE, EBD are two right angles. Then, since the angle CBE is equal to the two angles CBA, ABE, let the angle EBD be added to each; therefore the angles CBE, EBD are equal to the three angles CBA, ABE, EBD. [C.N. 2] Again, since the angle DBA is equal to the two angles DBE, EBA, let the angle ABC be added to each; therefore the angles DBA. ABC are equal to the three angles DBE, EBA, ABC. [C.N. 2] But the angles CBE, EBD were also proved equal to the same three angles; and things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another; [C.N. 1] therefore the angles CBE, EBD are also equal to the angles DBA, ABC. But the angles CBE, EBD are two right angles; therefore the angles DBA, ABC are also equal to two right angles. Therefore etc.