The square on a second apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a third apotome.

Τὸ ἀπὸ μέσης ἀποτομῆς δευτέρας παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομὴν τρίτην. Ἔστω μέσης ἀποτομὴ δευτέρα ἡ ΑΒ, ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΕ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι τρίτη. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΑΒ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΒΗ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι μέσον περιέχουσαι. καὶ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΘ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΚ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΚΘ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΚΛ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΚΜ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ [ καί ἐστι μέσα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ]: μέσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΓΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΓΔ παραβέβληται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλον τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, ὧν τὸ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ, λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΛΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. τετμήσθω οὖν ἡ ΖΜ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ν σημεῖον, καὶ τῇ ΓΔ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΝΞ: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΖΞ, ΝΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. μέσον δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ: μέσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΖΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΕΖ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΖΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΜ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΑΗ, ΗΒ δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι, ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα [ ἐστὶ ] μήκει ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΒ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, τῷ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ: ἀσύμμετρα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. ἀλλὰ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΛ, τῷ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ΖΛ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΛ τῷ ΖΛ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΓΛ πρὸς τὸ ΖΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ πρὸς τὴν ΖΜ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ τῇ ΖΜ μήκει. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ἄρα ΓΜ, ΜΖ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΖ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ τρίτη. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ, σύμμετρον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΚΛ: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΓΚ τῇ ΚΜ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, καί ἐστι τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ ἴσον τὸ ΚΛ, τῷ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ἴσον τὸ ΝΛ, καὶ τῶν ΓΘ, ΚΛ ἄρα μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΝΛ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΝΜ, ὡς δὲ τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΜ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΜΝ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΝ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΚ, ΚΜ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ [ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ, τουτέστι τῷ ] τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΜ. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοί εἰσιν αἱ ΓΜ, ΜΖ, καὶ τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΜ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΜ παραβέβληται ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ καὶ εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ, ἡ ΓΜ ἄρα τῆς ΜΖ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΜ, ΜΖ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΓΔ: ἡ ἄρα ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι τρίτη. Τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ μέσης ἀποτομῆς δευτέρας παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομὴν τρίτην: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | The square on a second apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a third apotome. Let AB be a second apotome of a medial straight line, and CD rational, and to CD let there be applied CE equal to the square on AB, producing CF as breadth; I say that CF is a third apotome. For let BG be the annex to AB; therefore AG, GB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a medial rectangle. [X. 75] Let CH equal to the square on AG be applied to CD, producing CK as breadth, and let KL equal to the square on BG be applied to KH, producing KM as breadth; therefore the whole CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB; therefore CL is also medial. [X. 15 and 23, Por.] And it is applied to the rational straight line CD, producing CM as breadth; therefore CM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. [X. 22] Now, since the whole CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB, and, in these, CE is equal to the square on AB, therefore the remainder LF is equal to twice the rectangle AG, GB. [II. 7] Let then FM be bisected at the point N, and let NO be drawn parallel to CD; therefore each of the rectangles FO, NL is equal to the rectangle AG, GB. But the rectangle AG, GB is medial; therefore FL is also medial. And it is applied to the rational straight line EF, producing FM as breadth; therefore FM is also rational and incommensurable in length with CD. [X. 22] And, since AG, GB are commensurable in square only, therefore AG is incommensurable in length with GB; therefore the square on AG is also incommensurable with the rectangle AG, GB. [VI. 1, X. 11] But the squares on AG, GB are commensurable with the square on AG, and twice the rectangle AG, GB with the rectangle AG, GB; therefore the squares on AG, GB are incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG, GB. [X. 13] But CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB, and FL is equal to twice the rectangle AG, GB; therefore CL is also incommensurable with FL. But, as CL is to FL, so is CM to FM; [VI. 1] therefore CM is incommensurable in length with FM. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore CM, MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore CF is an apotome. [X. 73] I say next that it is also a third apotome. For, since the square on AG is commensurable with the square on GB, therefore CH is also commensurable with KL, so that CK is also commensurable with KM. [VI. 1, X. 11] And, since the rectangle AG, GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG, GB, and CH is equal to the square on AG, KL equal to the square on GB, and NL equal to the rectangle AG, GB, therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH, KL; therefore, as CH is to NL, so is NL to KL. But, as CH is to NL, so is CK to NM, and, as NL is to KL, so is NM to KM; [VI. 1] therefore, as CK is to MN, so is MN to KM; [V. 11] therefore the rectangle CK, KM is equal to [the square on MN, that is, to] the fourth part of the square on FM. Since then CM, MF are two unequal straight lines, and a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on FM and deficient by a square figure has been applied to CM, and divides it into commensurable parts, therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line commensurable with CM. [X. 17] And neither of the straight lines CM, MF is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out; therefore CF is a third apotome. [X. Deff. III. 3] |