The square on a first apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a second apotome.

Τὸ ἀπὸ μέσης ἀποτομῆς πρώτης παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομὴν δευτέραν. Ἔστω μέσης ἀποτομὴ πρώτη ἡ ΑΒ, ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΕ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι δευτέρα. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΑΒ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΒΗ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι ῥητὸν περιέχουσαι. καὶ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΘ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΚ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ ἴσον τὸ ΚΛ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΚΜ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ: μέσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΓΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΓΔ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, ὧν τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΓΕ, λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΖΛ. ῥητὸν δὲ [ ἐστι ] τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ: ῥητὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΖΕ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΖΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΖΜ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὰ μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, τουτέστι τὸ ΓΛ, μέσον ἐστίν, τὸ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, τουτέστι τὸ ΖΛ, ῥητόν, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΛ τῷ ΖΛ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΓΛ πρὸς τὸ ΖΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ πρὸς τὴν ΖΜ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἡ ΓΜ τῇ ΖΜ μήκει. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ἄρα ΓΜ, ΜΖ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἡ ΓΖ ἄρα ἀποτομή ἐστιν. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ δευτέρα. Τετμήσθω γὰρ ἡ ΖΜ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ν, καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ν τῇ ΓΔ παράλληλος ἡ ΝΞ: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΖΞ, ΝΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τετραγώνων μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ΓΘ, τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τῷ ΝΛ, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ τῷ ΚΛ, καὶ τῶν ΓΘ, ΚΛ ἄρα μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΝΛ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΝΜ, ὡς δὲ τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΜ πρὸς τὴν ΜΚ: ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΝΜ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΜ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΚ, ΚΜ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΝΜ, τουτέστι τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΜ. [ καὶ ἐπεὶ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ, σύμμετρόν ἐστι καὶ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΚΛ, τουτέστιν ἡ ΓΚ τῇ ΚΜ. ] ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοί εἰσιν αἱ ΓΜ, ΜΖ, καὶ τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν μείζονα τὴν ΓΜ παραβέβληται ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΚ, ΚΜ καὶ εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ, ἡ ἄρα ΓΜ τῆς ΜΖ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ μήκει. καί ἐστιν ἡ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΖΜ σύμμετρος μήκει τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΓΔ: ἡ ἄρα ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι δευτέρα. Τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ μέσης ἀποτομῆς πρώτης παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομὴν δευτέραν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | The square on a first apotome of a medial straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a second apotome. Let AB be a first apotome of a medial straight line and CD a rational straight line, and to CD let there be applied CE equal to the square on AB, producing CF as breadth; I say that CF is a second apotome. For let BG be the annex to AB;. therefore AG, GB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle. [X. 74] To CD let there be applied CH equal to the square on AG, producing CK as breadth, and KL equal to the square on GB, producing KM as breadth; therefore the whole CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB; therefore CL is also medial. [X. 15 and 23, Por.] And it is applied to the rational straight line CD, producing CM as breadth; therefore CM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. [X. 22] Now, since CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB, and, in these, the square on AB is equal to CE, therefore the remainder, twice the rectangle AG, GB, is equal to FL. [II. 7] But twice the rectangle AG, GB is rational; therefore FL is rational. And it is applied to the rational straight line FE, producing FM as breadth; therefore FM is also rational and commensurable in length with CD. [X. 20] Now, since the sum of the squares on AG, GB, that is, CL, is medial, while twice the rectangle AG, GB, that is, FL, is rational, therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. But, as CL is to FL, so is CM to FM; [VI. 1] therefore CM is incommensurable in length with FM. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore CM, MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore CF is an apotome. [X. 73] I say next that it is also a second apotome. For let FM be bisected at N, and let NO be drawn through N parallel to CD; therefore each of the rectangles FO, NL is equal to the rectangle AG, GB. Now, since the rectangle AG, GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG, GB, and the square on AG is equal to CH, the rectangle AG, GB to NL, and the square on BG to KL, therefore NL is also a mean proportional between CH, KL; therefore, as CH is to NL, so is NL to KL. But, as CH is to NL, so is CK to NM, and, as NL is to KL, so is NM to MK; [VI. 1] therefore, as CK is to NM, so is NM, so is KM; [V. 11] therefore the rectangle CK, KM is equal to the square on NM [VI. 17], that is, to the fourth part of the square on FM. Since the CM, MF are two unequal straight lines, and the rectangle CK, KM equal to the fourth part of the square on MF and deficient by a square figure has been applied to the greater, CM, and divides it into commensurable parts, therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with CM. [X. 17] And the annex FM is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out; therefore CF is a second apotome. [X. Deff. III. 2] |