## Book X, Proposition 74

If from a medial straight line there be subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only, and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle, the remainder is irrational.

 Ἐὰν ἀπὸ μέσης μέση ἀφαιρεθῇ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ, μετὰ δὲ τῆς ὅλης ῥητὸν περιέχουσα, ἡ λοιπὴ ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ πρώτη. Ἀπὸ γὰρ μέσης τῆς ΑΒ μέση ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ΑΒ, μετὰ δὲ τῆς ΑΒ ῥητὸν ποιοῦσα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ λοιπὴ ἡ ΑΓ ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ πρώτη. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΓ μέσαι εἰσίν, μέσα ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ. ῥητὸν δὲ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: ἀσύμμετρα ἄρα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: καὶ λοιπῷ ἄρα τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ἐπεὶ κἂν τὸ ὅλον ἑνὶ αὐτῶν ἀσύμμετρον ᾖ, καὶ τὰ ἐξ ἀρχῆς μεγέθη ἀσύμμετρα ἔσται. ῥητὸν δὲ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: ἄλογον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ: ἄλογος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΓ: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ πρώτη. If from a medial straight line there be subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only, and which contains with the whole a rational rectangle, the remainder is irrational. And let it be called a first apotome of a medial straight line. For from the medial straight line AB let there be subtracted the medial straight line BC which is commensurable with AB in square only and with AB makes the rectangle AB, BC rational; I say that the remainder AC is irrational; and let it be called a first apotome of a medial straight line. For, since AB, BC are medial, the squares on AB, BC are also medial. But twice the rectangle AB, BC is rational; therefore the squares on AB, BC are incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB, BC; therefore twice the rectangle AB, BC is also incommensurable with the remainder, the square on AC, [Cf. II. 7] since, if the whole is incommensurable with one of the magnitudes, the original magnitudes will also be incommensurable. [X. 16] But twice the rectangle AB, BC is rational; therefore the square on AC is irrational; therefore AC is irrational. [X. Def. 4]