The square on a minor straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a fourth apotome.

Τὸ ἀπὸ ἐλάσσονος παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομὴν τετάρτην. Ἔστω ἐλάσσων ἡ ΑΒ, ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ ἴσον παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΕ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι τετάρτη. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΑΒ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΒΗ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΗ, ΗΒ δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τετραγώνων ῥητόν, τὸ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσον. καὶ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΓΘ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΚ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΗ ἴσον τὸ ΚΛ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΚΜ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. καί ἐστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ῥητόν: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΓΛ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΓΔ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΓΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΓΜ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅλον τὸ ΓΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, ὧν τὸ ΓΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ, λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. τετμήσθω οὖν ἡ ΖΜ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ν σημεῖον, καὶ ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Ν ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΓΔ, ΜΛ παράλληλος ἡ ΝΞ: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΖΞ, ΝΛ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσον ἐστὶ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΖΛ, καὶ τὸ ΖΛ ἄρα μέσον ἐστίν. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΖΕ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΖΜ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΜ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ῥητόν ἐστιν, τὸ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσον, ἀσύμμετρα [ ἄρα ] ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ. ἴσον δέ [ ἐστι ] τὸ ΓΛ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, τῷ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ ἴσον τὸ ΖΛ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα [ ἐστὶ ] τὸ ΓΛ τῷ ΖΛ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΓΛ πρὸς τὸ ΖΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ πρὸς τὴν ΜΖ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΜ τῇ ΜΖ μήκει. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ἄρα ΓΜ, ΜΖ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΖ. Λέγω [ δή ], ὅτι καὶ τετάρτη. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ αἱ ΑΗ, ΗΒ δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ. καί ἐστι τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ ἴσον τὸ ΓΘ, τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ ἴσον τὸ ΚΛ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΓΘ τῷ ΚΛ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΚ τῇ ΚΜ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΗ τῷ ΓΘ, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΒ τῷ ΚΛ, τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΒ τῷ ΝΛ, τῶν ἄρα ΓΘ, ΚΛ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΝΛ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ ΓΘ πρὸς τὸ ΝΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΝΜ, ὡς δὲ τὸ ΝΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΜ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΓΚ πρὸς τὴν ΜΝ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΝ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΚ, ΚΜ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ, τουτέστι τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΜ. ἐπεὶ οὖν δύο εὐθεῖαι ἄνισοί εἰσιν αἱ ΓΜ, ΜΖ, καὶ τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΖ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΜ παραβέβληται ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΚ, ΚΜ καὶ εἰς ἀσύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ, ἡ ἄρα ΓΜ τῆς ΜΖ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καί ἐστιν ὅλη ἡ ΓΜ σύμμετρος μήκει τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΓΔ: ἡ ἄρα ΓΖ ἀποτομή ἐστι τετάρτη. Τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ ἐλάσσονος καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. | The square on a minor straight line applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a fourth apotome. Let AB be a minor and CD a rational straight line, and to the rational straight line CD let CE be applied equal to the square on AB and producing CF as breadth; I say that CF is a fourth apotome. For let BG be the annex to AB; therefore AG, GB are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on AG, GB rational, but twice the rectangle AG, GB medial. [X. 76] To CD let there be applied CH equal to the square on AG and producing CK as breadth, and KL equal to the square on BG, producing KM as breadth; therefore the whole CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB. And the sum of the squares on AG, GB is rational; therefore CL is also rational. And it is applied to the rational straight line CD, producing CM as breadth; therefore CM is also rational and commensurable in length with CD. [X. 20] And, since the whole CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB, and, in these, CE is equal to the square on AB, therefore the remainder FL is equal to twice the rectangle AG, GB. [II. 7] Let then FM be bisected at the point N, and let NO be drawn through N parallel to either of the straight lines CD, ML; therefore each of the rectangles FO, NL is equal to the rectangle AG, GB. And, since twice the rectangle AG, GB is medial and is equal to FL, therefore FL is also medial. And it is applied to the rational straight line FE, producing FM as breadth; therefore FM is rational and incommensurable in length with CD. [X. 22] And, since the sum of the squares on AG, GB is rational, while twice the rectangle AG, GB is medial, the squares on AG, GB are incommensurable with twice the rectangle AG, GB. But CL is equal to the squares on AG, GB, and FL equal to twice the rectangle AG, GB; therefore CL is incommensurable with FL. But, as CL is to FL, so is CM to MF; [VI. 1] therefore CM is incommensurable in length with MF. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore CM, MF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore CF is an apotome. [X. 73] I say that it is also a fourth apotome. For, since AG, GB are incommensurable in square, therefore the square on AG is also incommensurable with the square on GB. And CH is equal to the square on AG, and KL equal to the square on GB; therefore CH is incommensurable with KL. But, as CH is to KL, so is CK to KM; [VI. 1] therefore CK is incommensurable in length with KM. [X. 11] And, since the rectangle AG, GB is a mean proportional between the squares on AG, GB, and the square on AG is equal to CH, the square on GB to KL, and the rectangle AG, GB to NL, therefore NL is a mean proportional between CH, KL; therefore, as CH is to NL, so is NL to KL. But, as CH is to NL, so is CK to NM, and, as NL is to KL, so is NM to KM; [VI. 1] therefore, as CK is to MN, so is MN to KM; [V. 11] therefore the rectangle CK, KM is equal to the square on MN [VI. 17], that is, to the fourth part of the square on FM. Since then CM, MF are two unequal straight lines, and the rectangle CK, KM equal to the fourth part of the square on MF and deficient by a square figure has been applied to CM and divides it into incommensurable parts, therefore the square on CM is greater than the square on MF by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CM. [X. 18] And the whole CM is commensurable in length with the rational straight line CD set out; therefore CF is a fourth apotome. [X. Deff. III. 4] |