Book X, Proposition 114

If an area be contained by an apotome and the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio, the “side” of the area is rational.

 Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ἀποτομῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά τέ ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ἀποτομῆς ὀνόμασι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ῥητή ἐστιν. Περιεχέσθω γὰρ χωρίον τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ ὑπὸ ἀποτομῆς τῆς ΑΒ καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων τῆς ΓΔ, ἧς μεῖζον ὄνομα ἔστω τὸ ΓΕ, καὶ ἔστω τὰ ὀνόματα τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων τὰ ΓΕ, ΕΔ σύμμετρά τε τοῖς τῆς ἀποτομῆς ὀνόμασι τοῖς ΑΖ, ΖΒ καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ ἔστω ἡ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ δυναμένη ἡ Η: λέγω, ὅτι ῥητή ἐστιν ἡ Η. Ἐκκείσθω γὰρ ῥητὴ ἡ Θ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΓΔ παραβεβλήσθω πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΚΛ: ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΛ, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα ἔστω τὰ ΚΜ, ΜΛ σύμμετρα τοῖς τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ὀνόμασι τοῖς ΓΕ, ΕΔ καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ. ἀλλὰ καὶ αἱ ΓΕ, ΕΔ σύμμετροί τέ εἰσι ταῖς ΑΖ, ΖΒ καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΚΜ πρὸς ΜΛ. ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΚΜ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΖ πρὸς τὴν ΛΜ: καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς λοιπὴν τὴν ΚΛ ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς ΚΜ. σύμμετρος δὲ ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΚΜ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΚΛ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς ΚΛ, οὕτως τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΚΛ: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΑΒ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΚΛ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΚΛ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΑΒ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ. τῷ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΑΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Η: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Η τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ. ῥητὸν δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Θ: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Η: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Η. καὶ δύναται τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔ, ΑΒ. Ἐὰν ἄρα χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ἀποτομῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ἀποτομῆς ὀνόμασι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ῥητή ἐστιν. Πόρισμα Καὶ γέγονεν ἡμῖν καὶ διὰ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι δυνατόν ἐστι ῥητὸν χωρίον ὑπὸ ἀλόγων εὐθειῶν περιέχεσθαι. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If an area be contained by an apotome and the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio, the “side” of the area is rational. For let an area, the rectangle AB, CD, be contained by the apotome AB and the binomial straight line CD, and let CE be the greater term of the latter; let the terms CE, ED of the binomial straight line be commensurable with the terms AF, FB of the apotome and in the same ratio; and let the “side” of the rectangle AB, CD be G; I say that G is rational. For let a rational straight line H be set out, and to CD let there be applied a rectangle equal to the square on H and producing KL as breadth. Therefore KL is an apotome. Let its terms be KM, ML commensurable with the terms CE, ED of the binomial straight line and in the same ratio. [X. 112] But CE, ED are also commensurable with AF, FB and in the same ratio; therefore, as AF is to FB, so is KM to ML. Therefore, alternately, as AF is to KM, so is BF to LM; therefore also the remainder AB is to the remainder KL as AF is to KM. [V. 19] But AF is commensurable with KM; [X. 12] therefore AB is also commensurable with KL. [X. 11] And, as AB is to KL, so is the rectangle CD, AB to the rectangle CD, KL; [VI. 1] therefore the rectangle CD, AB is also commensurable with the rectangle CD, KL. [X. 11] But the rectangle CD, KL is equal to the square on H; therefore the rectangle CD, AB is commensurable with the square on H. But the square on G is equal to the rectangle CD, AB; therefore the square on G is commensurable with the square on H. But the square on H is rational; therefore the square on G is also rational; therefore G is rational. And it is the “side” of the rectangle CD, AB. Therefore etc. PORISM.