## Book X, Proposition 115

From a medial straight line there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number, and none of them is the same as any of the preceding.

Ἀπὸ μέσης ἄπειροι ἄλογοι γίνονται, καὶ οὐδεμία οὐδεμιᾷ τῶν πρότερον ἡ αὐτή. Ἔστω μέση ἡ Α: λέγω, ὅτι ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἄπειροι ἄλογοι γίνονται, καὶ οὐδεμία οὐδεμιᾷ τῶν πρότερον ἡ αὐτή. Ἐκκείσθω ῥητὴ ἡ Β, καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β, Α ἴσον ἔστω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Γ: ἄλογος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Γ: τὸ γὰρ ὑπὸ ἀλόγου καὶ ῥητῆς ἄλογόν ἐστιν. καὶ οὐδεμιᾷ τῶν πρότερον ἡ αὐτή: τὸ γὰρ ἀπ' οὐδεμιᾶς τῶν πρότερον παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ μέσην. πάλιν δὴ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν Β, Γ ἴσον ἔστω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ: ἄλογον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Δ. ἄλογος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Δ: καὶ οὐδεμιᾷ τῶν πρότερον ἡ αὐτή: τὸ γὰρ ἀπ' οὐδεμιᾶς τῶν πρότερον παρὰ ῥητὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ τὴν Γ. ὁμοίως δὴ τῆς τοιαύτης τάξεως ἐπ' ἄπειρον προβαινούσης φανερόν, ὅτι ἀπὸ τῆς μέσης ἄπειροι ἄλογοι γίνονται, καὶ οὐδεμία οὐδεμιᾷ τῶν πρότερον ἡ αὐτή: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι ]. | From a medial straight line there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number, and none of them is the same as any of the preceding. Let A be a medial straight line; I say that from A there arise irrational straight lines infinite in number, and none of them is the same as any of the preceding. Let a rational straight line B be set out, and let the square on C be equal to the rectangle B, A; therefore C is irrational; [X. Def. 4] for that which is contained by an irrational and a rational straight line is irrational. [deduction from X. 20] And it is not the same with any of the preceding; for the square on none of the preceding, if applied to a rational straight line produces as breadth a medial straight line. Again, let the square on D be equal to the rectangle B, C; therefore the square on D is irrational. [deduction from X. 20] Therefore D is irrational; [X. Def. 4] and it is not the same with any of the preceding, for the square on none of the preceding, if applied to a rational straight line, produces C as breadth. |