The square on a rational straight line applied to the binomial straight line produces as breadth an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the binomial and moreover in the same ratio; and further the apotome so arising will have the same order as the binomial straight line.

Τὸ ἀπὸ ῥητῆς παρὰ τὴν ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ ἀποτομήν, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ὀνόμασι καὶ ἔτι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ ἔτι ἡ γινομένη ἀποτομὴ τὴν αὐτὴν ἕξει τάξιν τῇ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων. Ἔστω ῥητὴ μὲν ἡ Α, ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ, ἧς μεῖζον ὄνομα ἔστω ἡ ΔΓ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσον ἔστω τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, ΕΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΕΖ ἀποτομή ἐστιν, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς ΓΔ, ΔΒ, καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΕΖ τὴν αὐτὴν ἕξει τάξιν τῇ ΒΓ. Ἔστω γὰρ πάλιν τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσον τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔ, Η. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, ΕΖ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔ, Η, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ Η πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΓΒ τῆς ΒΔ: μείζων ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Η τῆς ΕΖ. ἔστω τῇ Η ἴση ἡ ΕΘ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ: διελόντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. γεγονέτω ὡς ἡ ΘΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΖΚ πρὸς τὴν ΚΕ: καὶ ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ΘΚ πρὸς ὅλην τὴν ΚΖ ἐστιν, ὡς ἡ ΖΚ πρὸς ΚΕ: ὡς γὰρ ἓν τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἓν τῶν ἑπομένων, οὕτως ἅπαντα τὰ ἡγούμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα τὰ ἑπόμενα. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΖΚ πρὸς ΚΕ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΒ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΘΚ πρὸς ΚΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΒ. σύμμετρον δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΔ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΚ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΚΖ. καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΚ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΚΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΚ πρὸς τὴν ΚΕ, ἐπεὶ αἱ τρεῖς αἱ ΘΚ, ΚΖ, ΚΕ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν. σύμμετρος ἄρα ἡ ΘΚ τῇ ΚΕ μήκει: ὥστε καὶ ἡ ΘΕ τῇ ΕΚ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΕΘ, ΒΔ, ῥητὸν δέ ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α, ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΕΘ, ΒΔ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΒΔ παράκειται: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΒΔ μήκει: ὥστε καὶ ἡ σύμμετρος αὐτῇ ἡ ΕΚ ῥητή ἐστι καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΒΔ μήκει. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς ΔΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΖΚ πρὸς ΚΕ, αἱ δὲ ΓΔ, ΔΒ δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι, καὶ αἱ ΖΚ, ΚΕ δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι. ῥητὴ δέ ἐστιν ἡ ΚΕ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΖΚ. αἱ ΖΚ, ΚΕ ἄρα ῥηταὶ δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι: ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΖ. Ἤτοι δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ ἢ τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου [ ἑαυτῇ ], καὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῆς ΚΕ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΖΚ: εἰ δὲ ἡ ΒΔ, καὶ ἡ ΚΕ: εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ, καὶ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΖΚ, ΚΕ. Εἰ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ τῆς ΔΒ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΖΚ τῆς ΚΕ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν ἡ ΓΔ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΖΚ: εἰ δὲ ἡ ΒΔ, καὶ ἡ ΚΕ: εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΓΔ, ΔΒ, καὶ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΖΚ, ΚΕ: ὥστε ἀποτομή ἐστιν ἡ ΖΕ, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα τὰ ΖΚ, ΚΕ σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ὀνόμασι τοῖς ΓΔ, ΔΒ καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν τάξιν ἔχει τῇ ΒΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | The square on a rational straight line applied to the binomial straight line produces as breadth an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the binomial and moreover in the same ratio; and further the apotome so arising will have the same order as the binomial straight line. Let A be a rational straight line, let BC be a binomial, and let DC be its greater term; let the rectangle BC, EF be equal to the square on A; I say that EF is an apotome the terms of which are commensurable with CD, DB, and in the same ratio, and further EF will have the same order as BC. For again let the rectangle BD, G be equal to the square on A. Since then the rectangle BC, EF is equal to the rectangle BD, G, therefore, as CB is to BD, so is G to EF. [VI. 16] But CB is greater than BD; therefore G is also greater than EF. [V. 16, V. 14] Let EH be equal to G; therefore, as CB is to BD, so is HE to EF; therefore, separando, as CD is to BD, so is HF to FE. [V. 17] Let it be contrived that, as HF is to FE, so is FK to KE; therefore also the whole HK is to the whole KF as FK is to KE; for, as one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents, so are all the antecedents to all the consequents. [V. 12] But, as FK is to KE, so is CD to DB; [V. 11] therefore also, as HK is to KF, so is CD to DB. [id.] But the square on CD is commensurable with the square on DB; [X. 36] therefore the square on HK is also commensurable with the square on KF. [VI. 22, X. 11] And, as the square on HK is to the square on KF, so is HK to KE, since the three straight lines HK, KF, KE are proportional. [V. Def. 9] Therefore HK is commensurable in length with KE, so that HE is also commensurable in length with EK. [X. 15] Now, since the square on A is equal to the rectangle EH, BD, while the square on A is rational, therefore the rectangle EH, BD is also rational. And it is applied to the rational straight line BD; therefore EH is rational and commensurable in length with BD; [X. 20] so that EK, being commensurable with it, is also rational and commensurable in length with BD. Since, then, as CD is to DB, so is FK to KE, while CD, DB are straight lines commensurable in square only, therefore FK, KE are also commensurable in square only. [X. 11] But KE is rational; therefore FK is also rational. Therefore FK, KE are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore EF is an apotome. [X. 73] Now the square on CD is greater than the square on DB either by the square on a straight line commensurable with CD or by the square on a straight line incommensurable with it. If then the square on CD is greater than the square on DB by the square on a straight line commensurable with CD, the square on FK is also greater than the square on KE by the square on a straight line commensurable with FK. [X. 14] And, if CD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, so also is FK; [X. 11, 12] if BD is so commensurable, so also is KE; [X. 12] but, if neither of the straight lines CD, DB is so commensurable, neither of the straight lines FK, KE is so. But, if the square on CD is greater than the square on DB by the square on a straight line incommensurable with CD, the square on FK is also greater than the square on KE by the square on a straight line incommensurable with FK. [X. 14] |