Book 7 Definitions
α΄. Μονάς ἐστιν, καθ' ἣν ἕκαστον τῶν ὄντων ἓν λέγεται.
β΄. Ἀριθμὸς δὲ τὸ ἐκ μονάδων συγκείμενον πλῆθος.
γ΄. Μέρος ἐστὶν ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμοῦ ὁ ἐλάσσων τοῦ μείζονος, ὅταν καταμετρῇ τὸν μείζονα.
δ΄. Μέρη δέ, ὅταν μὴ καταμετρῇ.
ε΄. Πολλαπλάσιος δὲ ὁ μείζων τοῦ ἐλάσσονος, ὅταν καταμετρῆται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἐλάσσονος.
ς΄. Ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ δίχα διαιρούμενος.
ζ΄. Περισσὸς δὲ ὁ μὴ διαιρούμενος δίχα ἢ [ὁ] μονάδι διαφέρων ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ.
η΄. Ἀρτιάκις ἄρτιος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν.
θ΄. Ἀρτιάκις δὲ περισσός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ ἀρτίου ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν.
[ι΄. Περισσάκις ἄρτιός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ ἄρτιον ἀριθμόν.]
ια΄. Περισσάκις δὲ περισσὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ὑπὸ περισσοῦ ἀριθμοῦ μετρούμενος κατὰ περισσὸν ἀριθμόν.
ιβ΄. Πρῶτος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενος.
ιγ΄. Πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ μονάδι μόνῃ μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ.
ιδ΄. Σύνθετος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενος.
ιε΄. Σύνθετοι δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμῷ τινι μετρούμενοι κοινῷ μέτρῳ.
ις΄. Ἀριθμὸς ἀριθμὸν πολλαπλασιάζειν λέγεται, ὅταν, ὅσαι εἰσὶν ἐν αὐτῷ μονάδες, τοσαυτάκις συντεθῇ ὁ πολλαπλασιαζόμενος, καὶ γένηταί τις.
ιζ΄. Ὅταν δὲ δύο ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα, ὁ γενόμενος ἐπίπεδος καλεῖται, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί.
ιη΄. Ὅταν δὲ τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ποιῶσί τινα, ὁ γενόμενος στερεός ἐστιν, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ πολλαπλασιάσαντες ἀλλήλους ἀριθμοί.
ιθ΄. Τετράγωνος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ δύο ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος.
κ΄. Κύβος δὲ ὁ ἰσάκις ἴσος ἰσάκις ἢ [ὁ] ὑπὸ τριῶν ἴσων ἀριθμῶν περιεχόμενος.
κα΄. Ἀριθμοὶ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν, ὅταν ὁ πρῶτος τοῦ δευτέρου καὶ ὁ τρίτος τοῦ τετάρτου ἰσάκις ᾖ πολλαπλάσιος ἢ τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἢ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ὦσιν.
κβ΄. Ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι καὶ στερεοὶ ἀριθμοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς.
κγ΄. Τέλειος ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν.
1. An unit is that by virtue of which each of the things that exist is called one.
2. A number is a multitude composed of units.
3. A number is a part of a number, the less of the greater, when it measures the greater;
4. but parts when it does not measure it.
5. The greater number is a multiple of the less when it is measured by the less.
6. An even number is that which is divisible into two equal parts.
7. An odd number is that which is not divisible into two equal parts, or that which differs by an unit from an even number.
8. An even-times even number is that which is measured by an even number according to an even number.
9. An even-times odd number is that which is measured by an even number according to an odd number.
10. An odd-times odd number is that which is measured by an odd number according to an odd number.
11. A prime number is that which is measured by an unit alone.
12. Numbers prime to one another are those which are measured by an unit alone as a common measure.
13. A composite number is that which is measured by some number.
14. Numbers composite to one another are those which are measured by some number as a common measure.
15. A number is said to multiply a number when that which is multiplied is added to itself as many times as there are units in the other, and thus some number is produced.
16. And, when two numbers having multiplied one another make some number, the number so produced is called plane, and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another.
17. And, when three numbers having multiplied one another make some number, the number so produced is solid, and its sides are the numbers which have multiplied one another.
18. A square number is equal multiplied by equal, or a number which is contained by two equal numbers.
19. And a cube is equal multiplied by equal and again by equal, or a number which is contained by three equal numbers.
20. Numbers are proportional when the first is the same multiple, or the same part, or the same parts, of the second that the third is of the fourth.
21. Similar plane and solid numbers are those which have their sides proportional.
22. A perfect number is that which is equal to its own parts.
Heiberg regards Definition 10 as an interpolation, and Heath does not translate it (see Heath ii.282–4). However, Heath does not preserve the Greek numeration of the Definitions; after the omitted Definition the Greek numeration is therefore out of step with the English: 11 Heiberg = 10 Heath, 12 Heiberg = 11 Heath, etc