# Book 6 Proposition 3

Ἐὰν τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ, ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν, τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς: καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς, ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τεμεῖ τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν. Ἔστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. Ἤχθω γὰρ διὰ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΔΑ παράλληλος ἡ ΓΕ καὶ διαχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΑ συμπιπτέτω αὐτῇ κατὰ τὸ Ε. Καὶ ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ, ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΑΓ, ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ γωνία ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ. ἀλλ' ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ὑπόκειται ἴση: καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ εἰς παραλλήλους τὰς ΑΔ, ΕΓ εὐθεῖα ἐνέπεσεν ἡ ΒΑΕ, ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ ἐντὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἴση: καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἄρα γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ ἐστιν ἴση: ὥστε καὶ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πλευρᾷ τῇ ΑΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ, ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΓ: ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι δίχα τέτμηται ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων, ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ: τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΒΓΕ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΕΓ ἦκται ἡ ΑΔ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΕ. ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ τῇ ΑΕ: ὥστε καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ ἐστιν ἴση. ἀλλ' ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῇ ἐκτὸς τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ [ἐστιν] ἴση, ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ τῇ ἐναλλὰξ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση: καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΑΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία δίχα τέτμηται ὑπὸ τῆς ΑΔ εὐθείας. Ἐὰν ἄρα τριγώνου ἡ γωνία δίχα τμηθῇ, ἡ δὲ τέμνουσα τὴν γωνίαν εὐθεῖα τέμνῃ καὶ τὴν βάσιν, τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἕξει λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς: καὶ ἐὰν τὰ τῆς βάσεως τμήματα τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχῃ λόγον ταῖς λοιπαῖς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραῖς, ἡ ἀπὸ τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὴν τομὴν ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα δίχα τέμνει τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου γωνίαν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If an angle of a triangle be bisected and the straight line cutting the angle cut the base also, the segments of the base will have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle; and, if the segments of the base have the same ratio as the remaining sides of the triangle, the straight line joined from the vertex to the point of section will bisect the angle of the triangle. Let ABC be a triangle, and let the angle BAC be bisected by the straight line AD; I say that, as BD is to CD, so is BA to AC. For let CE be drawn through C parallel to DA, and let BA be carried through and meet it at E. Then, since the straight line AC falls upon the parallels AD, EC, the angle ACE is equal to the angle CAD. [I. 29] But the angle CAD is by hypothesis equal to the angle BAD; therefore the angle BAD is also equal to the angle ACE. Again, since the straight line BAE falls upon the parallels AD, EC, the exterior angle BAD is equal to the interior angle AEC. [I. 29] But the angle ACE was also proved equal to the angle BAD; therefore the angle ACE is also equal to the angle AEC, so that the side AE is also equal to the side AC. [I. 6] And, since AD has been drawn parallel to EC, one of the sides of the triangle BCE, therefore, proportionally, as BD is to DC, so is BA to AE. But AE is equal to AC; [VI. 2] therefore, as BD is to DC, so is BA to AC. Again, let BA be to AC as BD to DC, and let AD be joined; I say that the angle BAC has been bisected by the straight line A.D. For, with the same construction, since, as BD is to DC, so is BA to AC, and also, as BD is to DC, so is BA to AE : for AD has been drawn parallel to EC, one of the sides of the triangle BCE: [VI. 2] therefore also, as BA is to AC, so is BA to AE. [V. 11] Therefore AC is equal to AE, [V. 9] so that the angle AEC is also equal to the angle ACE. [I. 5] But the angle AEC is equal to the exterior angle BAD, [I. 29] and the angle ACE is equal to the alternate angle CAD; [id.] therefore the angle BAD is also equal to the angle CAD. Therefore the angle BAC has been bisected by the straight line AD.