Clay Mathematics Institute

Dedicated to increasing and disseminating mathematical knowledge

Book 3 Proposition 36

63v-64r

63v-64r

64v-65r

64v-65r

Ἐὰν κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός, καὶ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι, καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον, ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται, ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ. Κύκλου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ εἰλήφθω τι σημεῖον ἐκτὸς τὸ Δ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον προσπιπτέτωσαν δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΔΓ[Α], ΔΒ: καὶ ἡ μὲν ΔΓΑ τεμνέτω τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον, ἡ δὲ ΒΔ ἐφαπτέσθω: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ τετραγώνῳ. Ἡ ἄρα [Δ]ΓΑ ἤτοι διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἐστὶν ἢ οὔ. ἔστω πρότερον διὰ τοῦ κέντρου, καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ζ κέντρον τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΒ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΖΒΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ δίχα τέτμηται κατὰ τὸ Ζ, πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΖΓ τῇ ΖΒ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ, ΒΔ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΒ, ΒΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΒ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ ἐφαπτομένης. ἀλλὰ δὴ ἡ ΔΓΑ μὴ ἔστω διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ ΑΒΓ κύκλου, καὶ εἰλήφθω τὸ κέντρον τὸ Ε, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΓ κάθετος ἤχθω ἡ ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΒ, ΕΓ, ΕΔ: ὀρθὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖά τις διὰ τοῦ κέντρου ἡ ΕΖ εὐθεῖάν τινα μὴ διὰ τοῦ κέντρου τὴν ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς τέμνει, καὶ δίχα αὐτὴν τέμνει: ἡ ΑΖ ἄρα τῇ ΖΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ τέτμηται δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον, πρόσκειται δὲ αὐτῇ ἡ ΓΔ, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. κοινὸν προσκείσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΕ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΖΔ, ΖΕ. τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ: ὀρθὴ γὰρ [ἐστιν] ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΖΓ [γωνία]: τοῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΖ, ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΓ τῇ ΕΒ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΔ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ, ΒΔ: ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΕΒ, ΒΔ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΔ, ΔΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΒ. Ἐὰν ἄρα κύκλου ληφθῇ τι σημεῖον ἐκτός, καὶ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὸν κύκλον προσπίπτωσι δύο εὐθεῖαι, καὶ ἡ μὲν αὐτῶν τέμνῃ τὸν κύκλον, ἡ δὲ ἐφάπτηται, ἔσται τὸ ὑπὸ ὅλης τῆς τεμνούσης καὶ τῆς ἐκτὸς ἀπολαμβανομένης μεταξὺ τοῦ τε σημείου καὶ τῆς κυρτῆς περιφερείας ἴσον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐφαπτομένης τετραγώνῳ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If a point be taken outside a circle and from it there fall on the circle two straight lines, and if one of them cut the circle and the other touch it, the rectangle contained by the whole of the straight line which cuts the circle and the straight line intercepted on it outside between the point and the convex circumference will be equal to the square on the tangent. For let a point D be taken outside the circle ABC, and from D let the two straight lines DCA, DB fall on the circle ABC; let DCA cut the circle ABC and let BD touch it; I say that the rectangle contained by AD, DC is equal to the square on DB. Then DCA is either through the centre or not through the centre. First let it be through the centre, and let F be the centre of the circle ABC; let FB be joined; therefore the angle FBD is right. [III. 18] And, since AC has been bisected at F, and CD is added to it, the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on FC is equal to the square on FD. [II. 6] But FC is equal to FB; therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on FB is equal to the square on FD. And the squares on FB, BD are equal to the square on FD; [I. 47] therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on FB is equal to the squares on FB, BD. Let the square on FB be subtracted from each; therefore the rectangle AD, DC which remains is equal to the square on the tangent DB. Again, let DCA not be through the centre of the circle ABC; let the centre E be taken, and from E let EF be drawn perpendicular to AC; let EB, EC, ED be joined. Then the angle EBD is right. [III. 18] And, since a straight line EF through the centre cuts a straight line AC not through the centre at right angles, it also bisects it; [III. 3] therefore AF is equal to FC. Now, since the straight line AC has been bisected at the point F, and CD is added to it, the rectangle contained by AD, DC together with the square on FC is equal to the square on FD. [II. 6] Let the square on FE be added to each; therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the squares on CF, FE is equal to the squares on FD, FE. But the square on EC is equal to the squares on CF, FE, for the angle EFC is right; [I. 47] and the square on ED is equal to the squares on DF, FE; therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on EC is equal to the square on ED. And EC is equal to EB; therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on EB is equal to the square on ED. But the squares on EB, BD are equal to the square on ED, for the angle EBD is right; [I. 47] therefore the rectangle AD, DC together with the square on EB is equal to the squares on EB, BD. Let the square on EB be subtracted from each; therefore the rectangle AD, DC which remains is equal to the square on DB.