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Book 12 Proposition 5

312v-312r

312v-313r

313v-314r

313v-314r

Αἱ ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος οὖσαι πυραμίδες καὶ τριγώνους ἔχουσαι βάσεις πρὸς ἀλλήλας εἰσὶν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. Ἔστωσαν ὑπὸ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος πυραμίδες, ὧν βάσεις μὲν τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ τρίγωνα, κορυφαὶ δὲ τὰ Η, Θ σημεῖα: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα. Εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα, ἔσται ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς ἤτοι πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τῆς ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδος στερεὸν ἢ πρὸς μεῖζον. ἔστω πρότερον πρὸς ἔλασσον τὸ Χ, καὶ διῃρήσθω ἡ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμὶς εἴς τε δύο πυραμίδας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις καὶ ὁμοίας τῇ ὅλῃ καὶ εἰς δύο πρίσματα ἴσα: τὰ δὴ δύο πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστιν ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ τῆς ὅλης πυραμίδος. καὶ πάλιν αἱ ἐκ τῆς διαιρέσεως γινόμεναι πυραμίδες ὁμοίως διῃρήσθωσαν, καὶ τοῦτο ἀεὶ γινέσθω, ἕως οὗ λειφθῶσί τινες πυραμίδες ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδος, αἵ εἰσιν ἐλάττονες τῆς ὑπεροχῆς, ᾗ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΔΕ ΖΘ πυραμὶς τοῦ Χ στερεοῦ. λελείφθωσαν καὶ ἔστωσαν λόγου ἕνεκεν αἱ ΔΠΡΣ, ΣΤΥΘ: λοιπὰ ἄρα τὰ ἐν τῇ ΔΕ ΖΘ πυραμίδι πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστι τοῦ Χ στερεοῦ. διῃρήσθω καὶ ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς ὁμοίως καὶ ἰσοπληθῶς τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως τὰ ἐν τῇ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδι πρίσματα πρὸς τὰ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι πρίσματα. ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὸ Χ στερεόν: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὸ Χ στερεόν, οὕτως τὰ ἐν τῇ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδι πρίσματα πρὸς τὰ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι πρίσματα: ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ πρίσματα, οὕτως τὸ Χ στερεὸν πρὸς τὰ ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι πρίσματα. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ πρισμάτων: μεῖζον ἄρα καὶ τὸ Χ στερεὸν τῶν ἐν τῇ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδι πρισμάτων. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἔλαττον: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τῆς ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδος στερεόν. ὁμοίως δὴ δειχθήσεται, ὅτι οὐδὲ ὡς ἡ ΔΕΖ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμὶς πρὸς ἔλαττόν τι τῆς ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδος στερεόν. Λέγω δή, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδὲ ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς μεῖζόν τι τῆς ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδος στερεόν. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἔστω πρὸς μεῖζον τὸ Χ: ἀνάπαλιν ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΕΖ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓ βάσιν, οὕτως τὸ Χ στερεὸν πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδα. ὡς δὲ τὸ Χ στερεὸν πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδα, οὕτως ἡ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμὶς πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τῆς ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδος, ὡς ἔμπροσθεν ἐδείχθη: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΔΕΖ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΑΒΓ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΔΕΖΘ πυραμὶς πρὸς ἔλασσόν τι τῆς ΑΒΓΗ πυραμίδος: ὅπερ ἄτοπον ἐδείχθη. οὐκ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς μεῖζόν τι τῆς ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδος στερεόν. ἐδείχθη δέ, ὅτι οὐδὲ πρὸς ἔλασσον. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒΓ βάσις πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖ βάσιν, οὕτως ἡ ΑΒΓΗ πυραμὶς πρὸς τὴν ΔΕΖΘ πυραμίδα: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Pyramids which are of the same height and have triangular bases are to one another as the bases. Let there be pyramids of the same height, of which the triangles ABC, DEF are the bases and the points G, H the vertices; I say that, as the base ABC is to the base DEF, so is the pyramid ABCG to the pyramid DEFH. For, if the pyramid ABCG is not to the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF, then, as the base ABC is to the base DEF, so will the pyramid ABCG be either to some solid less than the pyramid DEFH or to a greater. Let it, first, be in that ratio to a less solid W, and let the pyramid DEFH be divided into two pyramids equal to one another and similar to the whole and into two equal prisms; then the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. [XII. 3] Again, let the pyramids arising from the division be similarly divided, and let this be done continually until there are left over from the pyramid DEFH some pyramids which are less than the excess by which the pyramid DEFH exceeds the solid W. [X. I] Let such be left, and let them be, for the sake of argument, DQRS, STUH; therefore the remainders, the prisms in the pyramid DEFH, are greater than the solid W. Let the pyramid ABCG also be divided similarly, and a similar number of times, with the pyramid DEFH; therefore, as the base ABC is to the base DEF, so are the prisms in the pyramid ABCG to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. [XII. 4] But, as the base ABC is to the base DEF, so also is the pyramid ABCG to the solid W; therefore also, as the pyramid ABCG is to the solid W, so are the prisms in the pyramid ABCG to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH; [V. II] therefore, alternately, as the pyramid ABCG is to the prisms in it, so is the solid W to the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. [V. 16] But the pyramid ABCG is greater than the prisms in it; therefore the solid W is also greater than the prisms in the pyramid DEFH. But it is also less: which is impossible. Therefore the prism ABCG is not to any solid less than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. Similarly it can be proved that neither is the pyramid DEFH to any solid less than the pyramid ABCG as the base DEF is to the base ABC. I say next that neither is the pyramid ABCG to any solid greater than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. For, if possible, let it be in that ratio to a greater solid W; therefore, inversely, as the base DEF is to the base ABC, so is the solid W to the pyramid ABCG. But, as the solid W is to the solid ABCG, so is the pyramid DEFH to some solid less than the pyramid ABCG, as was before proved; [XII. 2, Lemma] therefore also, as the base DEF is to the base ABC, so is the pyramid DEFH to some solid less than the pyramid ABCG: [V. II] which was proved absurd. Therefore the pyramid ABCG is not to any solid greater than the pyramid DEFH as the base ABC is to the base DEF. But it was proved that neither is it in that ratio to a less solid.