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Book 1 Proposition 16

15v-16r

15v-16r

Παντὸς τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν. Ἔστω τρίγωνον τὸ ΑΒΓ, καὶ προσεκβεβλήσθω αὐτοῦ μία πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Δ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ μείζων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον τῶν ὑπὸ ΓΒΑ, ΒΑΓ γωνιῶν. Τετμήσθω ἡ ΑΓ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἐπιζευχθεῖσα ἡ ΒΕ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπ' εὐθείας ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΒΕ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΖΓ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΑΓ ἐπὶ τὸ Η. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΓ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΖ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΕ, ΕΖ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΒ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΕΓ ἴση ἐστίν: κατὰ κορυφὴν γάρ: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΒ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ ἴση ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΕΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον, καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ γωνίαι ταῖς λοιπαῖς γωνίαις ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, ὑφ' ἃς αἱ ἴσαι πλευραὶ ὑποτείνουσιν: ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ. μείζων δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΖ: μείζων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. ὁμοίως δὴ τῆς ΒΓ τετμημένης δίχα δειχθήσεται καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΓΗ, τουτέστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ, μείζων καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ. Παντὸς ἄρα τριγώνου μιᾶς τῶν πλευρῶν προσεκβληθείσης ἡ ἐκτὸς γωνία ἑκατέρας τῶν ἐντὸς καὶ ἀπεναντίον γωνιῶν μείζων ἐστίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

In any triangle, if one of the sides be produced, the exterior angle is greater than either of the interior and opposite angles. Let ABC be a triangle, and let one side of it BC be produced to D; I say that the exterior angle ACD is greater than either of the interior and opposite angles CBA, BAC. Let AC be bisected at E [I. 10], and let BE be joined and produced in a straight line to F; let EF be made equal to BE [I. 3], let FC be joined [Post. 1], and let AC be drawn through to G [Post. 2]. Then, since AE is equal to EC, and BE to EF, the two sides AE, EB are equal to the two sides CE, EF respectively; and the angle AEB is equal to the angle FEC, for they are vertical angles. [I. 15] Therefore the base AB is equal to the base FC, and the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle CFE, and the remaining angles are equal to the remaining angles respectively, namely those which the equal sides subtend; [I. 4] therefore the angle BAE is equal to the angle ECF. But the angle ECD is greater than the angle ECF; [C.N. 5] therefore the angle ACD is greater than the angle BAE. Similarly also, if BC be bisected, the angle BCG, that is, the angle ACD [I. 15], can be proved greater than the angle ABC as well. Therefore etc.