## Book VIII, Proposition 20

If one mean proportional number fall between two numbers, the numbers will be similar plane numbers.

 Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμῶν εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτῃ ἀριθμός, ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοι ἔσονται οἱ ἀριθμοί. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμῶν τῶν Α, Β εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπιπτέτω ἀριθμὸς ὁ Γ: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Α, Β ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. Εἰλήφθωσαν [ γὰρ ] ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Γ οἱ Δ, Ε: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Γ. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Δ τὸν Α μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ζ: ὁ Ζ ἄρα τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. ὥστε ὁ Α ἐπίπεδός ἐστιν, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ οἱ Δ, Ζ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ οἱ Δ, Ε ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Γ, Β, ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Δ τὸν Γ μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Β. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Β μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Η. ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Η μονάδας: ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ὁ Β ἄρα ἐπίπεδός ἐστι, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ Ε, Η. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ὅμοιοι. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ὁ Ζ τὸν μὲν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ, τουτέστιν ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ, Η πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Γ, Β πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί: αἱ γὰρ πλευραὶ αὐτῶν ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. If one mean proportional number fall between two numbers, the numbers will be similar plane numbers. For let one mean proportional number C fall between the two numbers A, B; I say that A, B are similar plane numbers. Let D, E, the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A, C, be taken; [VII. 33] therefore D measures A the same number of times that E measures C. [VII. 20] Now, as many times as D measures A, so many units let there be in F; therefore F by multiplying D has made A, so that A is plane, and D, F are its sides. Again, since D, E are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio with C, B, therefore D measures C the same number of times that E measures B. [VII. 20] As many times, then, as E measures B, so many units let there be in G; therefore E measures B according to the units in G; therefore G by multiplying E has made B. Therefore B is plane, and E, G are its sides. Therefore A, B are plane numbers. I say next that they are also similar. For, <*> since F by multiplying D has made A, and by multiplying E has made C, therefore, as D is to E, so is A to C, that is, C to B. [VII. 17] Again, <*> since E by multiplying F, G has made C, B respectively, therefore, as F is to G, so is C to B. [VII. 17] But, as C is to B, so is D to E; therefore also, as D is to E, so is F to G. And alternately, as D is to F, so is E to G. [VII. 13]