## Book VIII, Proposition 19

Between two similar solid numbers there fall two mean proportional numbers; and the solid number has to the similar solid number the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side.

 Δύο ὁμοίων στερεῶν ἀριθμῶν δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτουσιν ἀριθμοί: καὶ ὁ στερεὸς πρὸς τὸν ὅμοιον στερεὸν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν. Ἔστωσαν δύο ὅμοιοι στερεοὶ οἱ Α, Β, καὶ τοῦ μὲν Α πλευραὶ ἔστωσαν οἱ Γ, Δ, Ε, τοῦ δὲ Β οἱ Ζ, Η, Θ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὅμοιοι στερεοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντες τὰς πλευράς, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς μὲν ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, ὡς δὲ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. λέγω, ὅτι τῶν Α, Β δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτουσιν ἀριθμοί, καὶ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. Ὁ Γ γὰρ τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω, ὁ δὲ Ζ τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Λ ποιείτω. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Γ, Δ τοῖς Ζ, Η ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσίν, καὶ ἐκ μὲν τῶν Γ, Δ ἐστιν ὁ Κ, ἐκ δὲ τῶν Ζ, Η ὁ Λ, οἱ Κ, Λ [ ἄρα ] ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν ἀριθμοί: τῶν Κ, Λ ἄρα εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ἀριθμός. ἔστω ὁ Μ. ὁ Μ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ, Ζ, ὡς ἐν τῷ πρὸ τούτου θεωρήματι ἐδείχθη. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Δ τὸν μὲν Γ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Ζ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Μ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ, ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Λ. οἱ Κ, Μ, Λ ἄρα ἑξῆς εἰσιν ἀνάλογον ἐν τῷ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ λόγῳ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, ἐναλλὰξ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. οἱ Κ, Μ, Λ ἄρα ἑξῆς εἰσιν ἀνάλογον ἔν τε τῷ τοῦ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ λόγῳ καὶ τῷ τοῦ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι τῷ τοῦ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. ἑκάτερος δὴ τῶν Ε, Θ τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ν, Ξ ποιείτω. καὶ ἐπεὶ στερεός ἐστιν ὁ Α, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ Γ, Δ, Ε, ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν ἐκ τῶν Γ, Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῶν Γ, Δ ἐστιν ὁ Κ: ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Κ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Λ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Κ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ν πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ν. ὡς δὲ ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ, οὕτως ὅ τε Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἑκάτερος τῶν Ε, Θ τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ν, Ξ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὅ τε Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως ὅ τε Α πρὸς τὸν Ν καὶ ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Θ τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ξ πεποίηκεν, ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ τὸν Λ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Λ, οὕτως ὁ Ξ πρὸς τὸν Β. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Μ πρὸς τὸν Λ, οὕτως ὅ τε Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ, οὕτως οὐ μόνον ὁ Ξ πρὸς τὸν Β, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ν καὶ ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ. οἱ Α, Ν, Ξ, Β ἄρα ἑξῆς εἰσιν ἀνάλογον ἐν τοῖς εἰρημένοις τῶν πλευρῶν λόγοις. Λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν, τουτέστιν ἤπερ ὁ Γ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν Ζ ἢ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ τέσσαρες ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν οἱ Α, Ν, Ξ, Β, ὁ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸν Β τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ν. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Ν, οὕτως ἐδείχθη ὅ τε Γ πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ. καὶ ὁ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸν Β τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος πλευρὰ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευράν, τουτέστιν ἤπερ ὁ Γ ἀριθμὸς πρὸς τὸν Ζ καὶ ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ἔτι ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Θ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Between two similar solid numbers there fall two mean proportional numbers; and the solid number has to the similar solid number the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side. Let A, B be two similar solid numbers, and let C, D, E be the sides of A, and F, G, H of B. Now, since similar solid numbers are those which have their sides proportional, [VII. Def. 21] therefore, as C is to D, so is F to G, and, as D is to E, so is G to H. I say that between A, B there fall two mean proportional numbers, and A has to B the ratio triplicate of that which C has to F, D to G, and also E to H. For let C by multiplying D make K, and let F by multiplying G make L. Now, since C, D are in the same ratio with F, G, and K is the product of C, D, and L the product of F, G, K, L are similar plane numbers; [VII. Def. 21] therefore between K, L there is one mean proportional number. [VIII. 18] Let it be M Therefore M is the product of D, F, as was proved in the theorem preceding this. [VIII. 18] Now, since D by multiplying C has made K, and by multiplying F has made M, therefore, as C is to F, so is K to M. [VII. 17] But, as K is to M, so is M to L. Therefore K, M, L are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to F. And since, as C is to D, so is F to G, alternately therefore, as C is to F, so is D to G. [VII. 13] For the same reason also, as D is to G, so is E to H. Therefore K, M, L are continuously proportional in the ratio of C to F, in the ratio of D to G, and also in the ratio of E to H. Next, let E, H by multiplying M make N, O respectively. Now, since A is a solid number, and C, D, E are its sides, therefore E by multiplying the product of C, D has made A. But the product of C, D is K; therefore E by multiplying K has made A. For the same reason also H by multiplying L has made B. Now, since E by multiplying K has made A, and further also by multiplying M has made N, therefore, as K is to M, so is A to N. [VII. 17] But, as K is to M, so is C to F, D to G, and also E to H; therefore also, as C is to F, D to G, and E to H, so is A to N. Again, since E, H by multiplying M have made N, O respectively, therefore, as E is to H, so is N to O. [VII. 18] But, as E is to H, so is C to F and D to G; therefore also, as C is to F, D to G, and E to H, so is A to N and N to O. Again, since H by multiplying M has made O, and further also by multiplying L has made B, therefore, as M is to L, so is O to B. [VII. 17] But, as M is to L, so is C to F, D to G, and E to H. Therefore also, as C is to F, D to G, and E to H, so not only is O to B, but also A to N and N to O. Therefore A, N, O, B are continuously proportional in the aforesaid ratios of the sides. I say that A also has to B the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side has to the corresponding side, that is, of the ratio which the number C has to F, or D to G, and also E to H. For, since A, N, O, B are four numbers in continued proportion, therefore A has to B the ratio triplicate of that which A has to N. [V. Def. 10] But, as A is to N, so it was proved that C is to F, D to G, and also E to H.