In equal circles angles have the same ratio as the circumferences on which they stand, whether they stand at the centres or at the circumferences.

Ἐν τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις, ἐφ' ὧν βεβήκασιν, ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι. Ἔστωσαν ἴσοι κύκλοι οἱ ΑΒΓ, ΔΕΖ, καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοῖς κέντροις αὐτῶν τοῖς Η, Θ γωνίαι ἔστωσαν αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, πρὸς δὲ ταῖς περιφερείαις αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΕΔΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν, οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Κείσθωσαν γὰρ τῇ μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΓΚ, ΚΛ, τῇ δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείᾳ ἴσαι ὁσαιδηποτοῦν αἱ ΖΜ, ΜΝ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΗΚ, ΗΛ, ΘΜ, ΘΝ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἴσαι εἰσὶν αἱ ΒΓ, ΓΚ, ΚΛ περιφέρειαι ἀλλήλαις, ἴσαι εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ, ΓΗΚ, ΚΗΛ γωνίαι ἀλλήλαις: ὁσαπλασίων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ, τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ὁσαπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΝΕ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΖ, τοσαυταπλασίων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΝΘΕ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. εἰ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῇ ΕΝ περιφερείᾳ, ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ, καὶ εἰ μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας, μείζων ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ, καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων, ἐλάσσων. τεσσάρων δὴ ὄντων μεγεθῶν, δύο μὲν περιφερειῶν τῶν ΒΓ, ΕΖ, δύο δὲ γωνιῶν τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ, ΕΘΖ, εἴληπται τῆς μὲν ΒΓ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνίας ἰσάκις πολλαπλασίων ἥ τε ΒΛ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία, τῆς δὲ ΕΖ περιφερείας καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ γωνίας ἥ τε ΕΝ περιφέρεια καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνία. καὶ δέδεικται, ὅτι εἰ ὑπερέχει ἡ ΒΛ περιφέρεια τῆς ΕΝ περιφερείας, ὑπερέχει καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΛ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΘΝ γωνίας, καὶ εἰ ἴση, ἴση, καὶ εἰ ἐλάσσων, ἐλάσσων. ἔστιν ἄρα, ὡς ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ, οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ. ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ, οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ: διπλασία γὰρ ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρας. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΕΖ περιφέρειαν, οὕτως ἥ τε ὑπὸ ΒΗΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΘΖ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΕΔΖ. Ἐν ἄρα τοῖς ἴσοις κύκλοις αἱ γωνίαι τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχουσι λόγον ταῖς περιφερείαις, ἐφ' ὧν βεβήκασιν, ἐάν τε πρὸς τοῖς κέντροις ἐάν τε πρὸς ταῖς περιφερείαις ὦσι βεβηκυῖαι: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | In equal circles angles have the same ratio as the circumferences on which they stand, whether they stand at the centres or at the circumferences. Let ABC, DEF be equal circles, and let the angles BGC, EHF be angles at their centres G, H, and the angles BAC, EDF angles at the circumferences; I say that, as the circumference BC is to the circumference EF, so is the angle BGC to the angle EHF, and the angle BAC to the angle EDF. For let any number of consecutive circumferences CK, KL be made equal to the circumference BC, and any number of consecutive circumferences FM, MN equal to the circumference EF; and let GK, GL, HM, HN be joined. Then, since the circumferences BC, CK, KL are equal to one another, the angles BGC, CGK, KGL are also equal to one another; [III. 27] therefore, whatever multiple the circumference BL is of BC, that multiple also is the angle BGL of the angle BGC. For the same reason also, whatever multiple the circumference NE is of EF, that multiple also is the angle NHE of the angle EHF. If then the circumference BL is equal to the circumference EN, the angle BGL is also equal to the angle EHN; [III. 27] if the circumference BL is greater than the circumference EN, the angle BGL is also greater than the angle EHN; and, if less, less. There being then four magnitudes, two circumferences BC, EF, and two angles BGC, EHF, there have been taken, of the circumference BC and the angle BGC equimultiples, namely the circumference BL and the angle BGL, and of the circumference EF and the angle EHF equimultiples, namely the circumference EN and the angle EHN. And it has been proved that, if the circumference BL is in excess of the circumference EN, the angle BGL is also in excess of the angle EHN; if equal, equal; and if less, less. Therefore, as the circumference BC is to EF, so is the angle BGC to the angle EHF. [V. Def. 5] But, as the angle BGC is to the angle EHF, so is the angle BAC to the angle EDF; for they are doubles respectively. Therefore also, as the circumference BC is to the circumference EF, so is the angle BGC to the angle EHF, and the angle BAC to the angle EDF. |