If two triangles having two sides proportional to two sides be placed together at one angle so that their corresponding sides are also parallel, the remaining sides of the triangles will be in a straight line.

Ἐὰν δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι, αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ' εὐθείας ἔσονται. Ἔστω δύο τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΓΕ τὰς δύο πλευρὰς τὰς ΒΑ, ΑΓ ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ταῖς ΔΓ, ΔΕ ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα, ὡς μὲν τὴν ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως τὴν ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ, παράλληλον δὲ τὴν μὲν ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ, τὴν δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΔΕ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐπ' εὐθείας ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΔΓ, καὶ εἰς αὐτὰς ἐμπέπτωκεν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΑΓ, αἱ ἐναλλὰξ γωνίαι αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΔ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ ἴση ἐστίν. ὥστε καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο τρίγωνά ἐστι τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΓΕ μίαν γωνίαν τὴν πρὸς τῷ Α μιᾷ γωνίᾳ τῇ πρὸς τῷ Δ ἴσην ἔχοντα, περὶ δὲ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον, ὡς τὴν ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως τὴν ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΕ, ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΓΕ τριγώνῳ: ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΕ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ ἴση: ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ δυσὶ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ, ΒΑΓ ἴση ἐστίν. κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΓΒ: αἱ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ ταῖς ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΑΓΒ, ΓΒΑ ἴσαι εἰσίν. ἀλλ' αἱ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΑΒΓ, ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν: καὶ αἱ ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ ἄρα δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσαι εἰσίν. πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΑΓ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Γ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΒΓ, ΓΕ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας τὰς ὑπὸ ΑΓΕ, ΑΓΒ δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν: ἐπ' εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΓΕ. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο τρίγωνα συντεθῇ κατὰ μίαν γωνίαν τὰς δύο πλευρὰς ταῖς δυσὶ πλευραῖς ἀνάλογον ἔχοντα ὥστε τὰς ὁμολόγους αὐτῶν πλευρὰς καὶ παραλλήλους εἶναι, αἱ λοιπαὶ τῶν τριγώνων πλευραὶ ἐπ' εὐθείας ἔσονται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two triangles having two sides proportional to two sides be placed together at one angle so that their corresponding sides are also parallel, the remaining sides of the triangles will be in a straight line. Let ABC, DCE be two triangles having the two sides BA, AC proportional to the two sides DC, DE, so that, as AB is to AC, so is DC to DE, and AB parallel to DC, and AC to DE; I say that BC is in a straight line with CE. For, since AB is parallel to DC, and the straight line AC has fallen upon them, the alternate angles BAC, ACD are equal to one another. [I. 29] For the same reason the angle CDE is also equal to the angle ACD; so that the angle BAC is equal to the angle CDE. And, since ABC, DCE are two triangles having one angle, the angle at A, equal to one angle, the angle at D, and the sides about the equal angles proportional, so that, as BA is to AC, so is CD to DE, therefore the triangle ABC is equiangular with the triangle DCE; [VI. 6] therefore the angle ABC is equal to the angle DCE. But the angle ACD was also proved equal to the angle BAC; therefore the whole angle ACE is equal to the two angles ABC, BAC. Let the angle ACB be added to each; therefore the angles ACE, ACB are equal to the angles BAC, ACB, CBA. But the angles BAC, ABC, ACB are equal to two right angles; [I. 32] therefore the angles ACE, ACB are also equal to two right angles. Therefore with a straight line AC, and at the point C on it, the two straight lines BC, CE not lying on the same side make the adjacent angles ACE, ACB equal to two right angles; therefore BC is in a straight line with CE. [I. 14] |