Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides.

Τὰ ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Ἔστω ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα τὰ ΑΓ, ΓΖ ἴσην ἔχοντα τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΓΔ γωνίαν τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΗ: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Κείσθω γὰρ ὥστε ἐπ' εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΒΓ τῇ ΓΗ: ἐπ' εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῇ ΓΕ. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΔΗ παραλληλόγραμμον, καὶ ἐκκείσθω τις εὐθεῖα ἡ Κ, καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ, οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ, οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ. Οἱ ἄρα λόγοι τῆς τε Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ καὶ τῆς Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς λόγοις τῶν πλευρῶν, τῆς τε ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ καὶ τῆς ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ. ἀλλ' ὁ τῆς Κ πρὸς Μ λόγος σύγκειται ἔκ τε τοῦ τῆς Κ πρὸς Λ λόγου καὶ τοῦ τῆς Λ πρὸς Μ: ὥστε καὶ ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ, ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΗ, οὕτως ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ. πάλιν, ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ, οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ, ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΕ, οὕτως ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ, οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐδείχθη, ὡς μὲν ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Λ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον, ὡς δὲ ἡ Λ πρὸς τὴν Μ, οὕτως τὸ ΓΘ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον, δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΓ πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ παραλληλόγραμμον. ἡ δὲ Κ πρὸς τὴν Μ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν: καὶ τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ ΓΖ λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν. Τὰ ἄρα ἰσογώνια παραλληλόγραμμα πρὸς ἄλληλα λόγον ἔχει τὸν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν πλευρῶν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | Equiangular parallelograms have to one another the ratio compounded of the ratios of their sides. Let AC, CF be equiangular parallelograms having the angle BCD equal to the angle ECG; I say that the parallelogram AC has to the parallelogram CF the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. For let them be placed so that BC is in a straight line with CG; therefore DC is also in a straight line with CE. Let the parallelogram DG be completed; let a straight line K be set out, and let it be contrived that, as BC is to CG, so is K to L, and, as DC is to CE, so is L to M. [VI. 12] Then the ratios of K to L and of L to M are the same as the ratios of the sides, namely of BC to CG and of DC to CE. But the ratio of K to M is compounded of the ratio of K to L and of that of L to M; so that K has also to M the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. Now since, as BC is to CG, so is the parallelogram AC to the parallelogram CH, [VI. 1] while, as BC is to CG, so is K to L, therefore also, as K is to L, so is AC to CH. [V. 11] Again, since, as DC is to CE, so is the parallelogram CH to CF, [VI. 1] while, as DC is to CE, so is L to M, therefore also, as L is to M, so is the parallelogram CH to the parallelogram CF. [V. 11] Since then it was proved that, as K is to L, so is the parallelogram AC to the parallelogram CH, and, as L is to M, so is the parallelogram CH to the parallelogram CF, therefore, ex aequali, as K is to M, so is AC to the parallelogram CF. But K has to M the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides; therefore AC also has to CF the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. |