In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diameter are similar both to the whole and to one another.

Παντὸς παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. Ἔστω παραλληλόγραμμον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ, διάμετρος δὲ αὐτοῦ ἡ ΑΓ, περὶ δὲ τὴν ΑΓ παραλληλόγραμμα ἔστω τὰ ΕΗ, ΘΚ: λέγω, ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν ΕΗ, ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων ὅμοιόν ἐστι ὅλῳ τῷ ΑΒΓΔ καὶ ἀλλήλοις. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΒΓ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΒΓ ἦκται ἡ ΕΖ, ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ, οὕτως, ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΓΔ παρὰ μίαν τὴν ΓΔ ἦκται ἡ ΖΗ, ἀνάλογόν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ. ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ, οὕτως ἐδείχθη καὶ ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΑ, καὶ συνθέντι ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς ΑΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΑ πρὸς ΑΗ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΗ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ, ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὴν κοινὴν γωνίαν τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΔ. καὶ ἐπεὶ παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΔΓ, ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ὑπὸ ΑΖΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΔΓΑ: καὶ κοινὴ τῶν δύο τριγώνων τῶν ΑΔΓ, ΑΗΖ ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΑΓ γωνία: ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΑΗΖ τριγώνῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΓΒ τρίγωνον ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τῷ ΑΖΕ τριγώνῳ, καὶ ὅλον τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἰσογώνιόν ἐστιν. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΖ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ, καὶ ἔτι ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐδείχθη ὡς μὲν ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΑ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ, δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΕ. τῶν ἄρα ΑΒΓΔ, ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμων ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν αἱ πλευραὶ αἱ περὶ τὰς ἴσας γωνίας: ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΕΗ παραλληλογράμμῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ τὸ ΑΒΓΔ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τῷ ΚΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΕΗ, ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμων τῷ ΑΒΓΔ [ παραλληλογράμμῳ ] ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. τὰ δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ εὐθυγράμμῳ ὅμοια καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶν ὅμοια: καὶ τὸ ΕΗ ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΘΚ παραλληλογράμμῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. Παντὸς ἄρα παραλληλογράμμου τὰ περὶ τὴν διάμετρον παραλληλόγραμμα ὅμοιά ἐστι τῷ τε ὅλῳ καὶ ἀλλήλοις: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | In any parallelogram the parallelograms about the diameter are similar both to the whole and to one another. Let ABCD be a parallelogram, and AC its diameter, and let EG, HK be parallelograms about AC; I say that each of the parallelograms EG, HK is similar both to the whole ABCD and to the other. For, since EF has been drawn parallel to BC, one of the sides of the triangle ABC, proportionally, as BE is to EA, so is CF to FA. [VI. 2] Again, since FG has been drawn parallel to CD, one of the sides of the triangle ACD, proportionally, as CF is to FA, so is DG to GA. [VI. 2] But it was proved that, as CF is to FA, so also is BE to EA; therefore also, as BE is to EA, so is DG to GA, and therefore, componendo, as BA is to AE, so is DA to AG, [V. 18] and, alternately, as BA is to AD, so is EA to AG. [V. 16] Therefore in the parallelograms ABCD, EG, the sides about the common angle BAD are proportional. And, since GF is parallel to DC, the angle AFG is equal to the angle DCA; and the angle DAC is common to the two triangles ADC, AGF; therefore the triangle ADC is equiangular with the triangle AGF. For the same reason the triangle ACB is also equiangular with the triangle AFE, and the whole parallelogram ABCD is equiangular with the parallelogram EG. Therefore, proportionally, as AD is to DC, so is AG to GF, as DC is to CA, so is GF to FA, as AC is to CB, so is AF to FE, and further, as CB is to BA, so is FE to EA. And, since it was proved that, as DC is to CA, so is GF to FA, and, as AC is to CB, so is AF to FE, therefore, ex aequali, as DC is to CB, so is GF to FE. [V. 22] Therefore in the parallelograms ABCD, EG the sides about the equal angles are proportional; therefore the parallelogram ABCD is similar to the parallelogram EG. [VI. Def. 1] For the same reason the parallelogram ABCD is also similar to the parallelogram KH; therefore each of the parallelograms EG, HK is similar to ABCD. But figures similar to the same rectilineal figure are also similar to one another; [VI. 21] therefore the parallelogram EG is also similar to the parallelogram HK. |