To construct a square equal to a given rectilineal figure.

Τῷ δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. Ἔστω τὸ δοθὲν εὐθύγραμμον τὸ Α: δεῖ δὴ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συστήσασθαι. Συνεστάτω γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον παραλληλόγραμμον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΒΔ: εἰ μὲν οὖν ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΕ τῇ ΕΔ, γεγονὸς ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐπιταχθέν. συνέσταται γὰρ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔ: εἰ δὲ οὔ, μία τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΔ μείζων ἐστίν. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΒΕ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἐπὶ τὸ Ζ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ ΕΔ ἴση ἡ ΕΖ, καὶ τετμήσθω ἡ ΒΖ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Η, καὶ κέντρῳ τῷ Η, διαστήματι δὲ ἑνὶ τῶν ΗΒ, ΗΖ ἡμικύκλιον γεγράφθω τὸ ΒΘΖ, καὶ ἐκβεβλήσθω ἡ ΔΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Θ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΗΘ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΖ τέτμηται εἰς μὲν ἴσα κατὰ τὸ Η, εἰς δὲ ἄνισα κατὰ τὸ Ε, τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ τετραγώνου ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΖ τετραγώνῳ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΗΘ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ. τῷ δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΘ ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ, ΕΗ τετράγωνα: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΖ μετὰ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΗΕ ἴσα ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΘΕ, ΕΗ. κοινὸν ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΕ τετράγωνον: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΖ περιεχόμενον ὀρθογώνιον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ τετραγώνῳ. ἀλλὰ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΕ, ΕΖ τὸ ΒΔ ἐστιν: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΔ: τὸ ἄρα ΒΔ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΘΕ τετραγώνῳ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ ΒΔ τῷ Α εὐθυγράμμῳ. καὶ τὸ Α ἄρα εὐθύγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησομένῳ τετραγώνῳ. Τῷ ἄρα δοθέντι εὐθυγράμμῳ τῷ Α ἴσον τετράγωνον συνέσταται τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΘ ἀναγραφησόμενον: ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι. | To construct a square equal to a given rectilineal figure. Let A be the given rectilineal figure; thus it is required to construct a square equal to the rectilineal figure A. For let there be constructed the rectangular parallelogram BD equal to the rectilineal figure A. [I. 45] Then, if BE is equal to ED, that which was enjoined will have been done; for a square BD has been constructed equal to the rectilineal figure A. But, if not, one of the straight lines BE, ED is greater. Let BE be greater, and let it be produced to F; let EF be made equal to ED, and let BF be bisected at G. With centre G and distance one of the straight lines GB, GF let the semicircle BHF be described; let DE be produced to H, and let GH be joined. Then, since the straight line BF has been cut into equal segments at G, and into unequal segments at E, the rectangle contained by BE, EF together with the square on EG is equal to the square on GF. [II. 5] But GF is equal to GH; therefore the rectangle BE, EF together with the square on GE is equal to the square on GH. But the squares on HE, EG are equal to the square on GH; [I. 47] therefore the rectangle BE, EF together with the square on GE is equal to the squares on HE, EG. Let the square on GE be subtracted from each; therefore the rectangle contained by BE, EF which remains is equal to the square on EH. But the rectangle BE, EF is BD, for EF is equal to ED; therefore the parallelogram BD is equal to the square on HE. And BD is equal to the rectilineal figure A. Therefore the rectilineal figure A is also equal to the square which can be described on EH. |