In right-angled triangles the square on the side subtending the right angle is equal to the squares on the sides containing the right angle.

Ἐν τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. Ἔστω τρίγωνον ὀρθογώνιον τὸ ΑΒΓ ὀρθὴν ἔχον τὴν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνίαν: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τετραγώνοις. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ΒΓ τετράγωνον τὸ ΒΔΕΓ, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ τὰ ΗΒ, ΘΓ, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Α ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΒΔ, ΓΕ παράλληλος ἤχθω ἡ ΑΛ: καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΑΔ, ΖΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἑκατέρα τῶν ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ, ΒΑΗ γωνιῶν, πρὸς δή τινι εὐθείᾳ τῇ ΒΑ καὶ τῷ πρὸς αὐτῇ σημείῳ τῷ Α δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΓ, ΑΗ μὴ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη κείμεναι τὰς ἐφεξῆς γωνίας δυσὶν ὀρθαῖς ἴσας ποιοῦσιν: ἐπ' εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΑ τῇ ΑΗ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΒΑ τῇ ΑΘ ἐστιν ἐπ' εὐθείας. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΑ: ὀρθὴ γὰρ ἑκατέρα: κοινὴ προσκείσθω ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΒΓ: ὅλη ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ ὅλῃ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἐστιν ἴση. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΔΒ τῇ ΒΓ, ἡ δὲ ΖΒ τῇ ΒΑ, δύο δὴ αἱ ΔΒ, ΒΑ δύο ταῖς ΖΒ, ΒΓ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΔΒΑ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΖΒΓ ἴση: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΑΔ βάσει τῇ ΖΓ [ ἐστιν ] ἴση, καὶ τὸ ΑΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΖΒΓ τριγώνῳ ἐστὶν ἴσον: καὶ [ ἐστὶ ] τοῦ μὲν ΑΒΔ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον: βάσιν τε γὰρ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΒΔ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΒΔ, ΑΛ: τοῦ δὲ ΖΒΓ τριγώνου διπλάσιον τὸ ΗΒ τετράγωνον: βάσιν τε γὰρ πάλιν τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχουσι τὴν ΖΒ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς εἰσι παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΖΒ, ΗΓ. [ τὰ δὲ τῶν ἴσων διπλάσια ἴσα ἀλλήλοις ἐστίν: ] ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ΒΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΗΒ τετραγώνῳ. ὁμοίως δὴ ἐπιζευγνυμένων τῶν ΑΕ, ΒΚ δειχθήσεται καὶ τὸ ΓΛ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον τῷ ΘΓ τετραγώνῳ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον δυσὶ τοῖς ΗΒ, ΘΓ τετραγώνοις ἴσον ἐστίν. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΔΕΓ τετράγωνον ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ ἀναγραφέν, τὰ δὲ ΗΒ, ΘΓ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ. τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις. Ἐν ἄρα τοῖς ὀρθογωνίοις τριγώνοις τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς τὴν ὀρθὴν γωνίαν ὑποτεινούσης πλευρᾶς τετράγωνον ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν τὴν ὀρθὴν [ γωνίαν ] περιεχουσῶν πλευρῶν τετραγώνοις: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | In right-angled triangles the square on the side subtending the right angle is equal to the squares on the sides containing the right angle. Let ABC be a right-angled triangle having the angle BAC right; I say that the square on BC is equal to the squares on BA, AC. For let there be described on BC the square BDEC, and on BA, AC the squares GB, HC; [I. 46] through A let AL be drawn parallel to either BD or CE, and let AD, FC be joined. Then, since each of the angles BAC, BAG is right, it follows that with a straight line BA, and at the point A on it, the two straight lines AC, AG not lying on the same side make the adjacent angles equal to two right angles; therefore CA is in a straight line with AG. [I. 14] For the same reason BA is also in a straight line with AH. And, since the angle DBC is equal to the angle FBA: for each is right: let the angle ABC be added to each; therefore the whole angle DBA is equal to the whole angle FBC. [C.N. 2] And, since DB is equal to BC, and FB to BA, the two sides AB, BD are equal to the two sides FB, BC respectively, and the angle ABD is equal to the angle FBC; therefore the base AD is equal to the base FC, and the triangle ABD is equal to the triangle FBC. [I. 4] Now the parallelogram BL is double of the triangle ABD, for they have the same base BD and are in the same parallels BD, AL. [I. 41] And the square GB is double of the triangle FBC, for they again have the same base FB and are in the same parallels FB, GC. [I. 41] [But the doubles of equals are equal to one another.] Therefore the parallelogram BL is also equal to the square GB. Similarly, if AE, BK be joined, the parallelogram CL can also be proved equal to the square HC; therefore the whole square BDEC is equal to the two squares GB, HC. [C.N. 2] And the square BDEC is described on BC, and the squares GB, HC on BA, AC. Therefore the square on the side BC is equal to the squares on the sides BA, AC. Therefore etc. |