To construct a cube and comprehend it in a sphere, like the pyramid; and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple of the square on the side of the cube.
|Κύβον συστήσασθαι καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν, ᾗ καὶ τὴν πυραμίδα, καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος δυνάμει τριπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς τοῦ κύβου πλευρᾶς. Ἐκκείσθω ἡ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τετμήσθω κατὰ τὸ Γ ὥστε διπλῆν εἶναι τὴν ΑΓ τῆς ΓΒ, καὶ γεγράφθω ἐπὶ τῆς ΑΒ ἡμικύκλιον τὸ ΑΔΒ, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Γ τῇ ΑΒ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθω ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΒ, καὶ ἐκκείσθω τετράγωνον τὸ ΕΖΗΘ ἴσην ἔχον τὴν πλευρὰν τῇ ΔΒ, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ τῷ τοῦ ΕΖΗΘ τετραγώνου ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἤχθωσαν αἱ ΕΚ, ΖΛ, ΗΜ, ΘΝ, καὶ ἀφῃρήσθω ἀπὸ ἑκάστης τῶν ΕΚ, ΖΛ, ΗΜ, ΘΝ μιᾷ τῶν ΕΖ, ΖΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΕ ἴση ἑκάστη τῶν ΕΚ, ΖΛ, ΗΜ, ΘΝ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΚΛ, ΛΜ, ΜΝ, ΝΚ: κύβος ἄρα συνέσταται ὁ ΖΝ ὑπὸ ἓξ τετραγώνων ἴσων περιεχόμενος. δεῖ δὴ αὐτὸν καὶ σφαίρᾳ περιλαβεῖν τῇ δοθείσῃ καὶ δεῖξαι, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος δυνάμει τριπλασία ἐστὶ τῆς πλευρᾶς τοῦ κύβου. Ἐπεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΚΗ, ΕΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΕΗ γωνία διὰ τὸ καὶ τὴν ΚΕ ὀρθὴν εἶναι πρὸς τὸ ΕΗ ἐπίπεδον δηλαδὴ καὶ πρὸς τὴν ΕΗ εὐθεῖαν, τὸ ἄρα ἐπὶ τῆς ΚΗ γραφόμενον ἡμικύκλιον ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ε σημείου. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ἡ ΗΖ ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς ἑκατέραν τῶν ΖΛ, ΖΕ, καὶ πρὸς τὸ ΖΚ ἄρα ἐπίπεδον ὀρθή ἐστιν ἡ ΗΖ: ὥστε καὶ ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὴν ΖΚ, ἡ ΗΖ ὀρθὴ ἔσται καὶ πρὸς τὴν ΖΚ: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πάλιν τὸ ἐπὶ τῆς ΗΚ γραφόμενον ἡμικύκλιον ἥξει καὶ διὰ τοῦ Ζ. ὁμοίως καὶ διὰ τῶν λοιπῶν τοῦ κύβου σημείων ἥξει. ἐὰν δὴ μενούσης τῆς ΚΗ περιενεχθὲν τὸ ἡμικύκλιον εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ ἀποκατασταθῇ, ὅθεν ἤρξατο φέρεσθαι, ἔσται σφαίρᾳ περιειλημμένος ὁ κύβος. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ τῇ δοθείσῃ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΖ τῇ ΖΕ, καί ἐστιν ὀρθὴ ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ζ γωνία, τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΖ τῇ ΕΚ: τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ διπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΚ: ὥστε τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΗΕ, ΕΚ, τουτέστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΚ, τριπλάσιόν ἐστι τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΚ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριπλασίων ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῆς ΒΓ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ, τριπλάσιον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΔ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΚ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΚΕ τριπλάσιον. καὶ κεῖται ἴση ἡ ΚΕ τῇ ΔΒ: ἴση ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΚΗ τῇ ΑΒ. καί ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διάμετρος: καὶ ἡ ΚΗ ἄρα ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ τῆς δοθείσης σφαίρας διαμέτρῳ. Τῇ δοθείσῃ ἄρα σφαίρᾳ περιείληπται ὁ κύβος: καὶ συναποδέδεικται, ὅτι ἡ τῆς σφαίρας διάμετρος δυνάμει τριπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς τοῦ κύβου πλευρᾶς: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.||To construct a cube and comprehend it in a sphere, like the pyramid; and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple of the square on the side of the cube. Let the diameter AB of the given sphere be set out, and let it be cut at C so that AC is double of CB; let the semicircle ADB be described on AB, let CD be drawn from C at right angles to AB, and let DB be joined; let the square EFGH having its side equal to DB be set out, from E, F, G, H let EK, FL, GM, HN be drawn at right angles to the plane of the square EFGH, from EK, FL, GM, HN let EK, FL, GM, HN respectively be cut off equal to one of the straight lines EF, FG, GH, HE, and let KL, LM, MN, NK be joined; therefore the cube FN has been constructed which is contained by six equal squares. It is then required to comprehend it in the given sphere, and to prove that the square on the diameter of the sphere is triple of the square on the side of the cube. For let KG, EG be joined. Then, since the angle KEG is right, because KE is also at right angles to the plane EG and of course to the straight line EG also, [XI. Def. 3] therefore the semicircle described on KG will also pass through the point E. Again, since GF is at right angles to each of the straight lines FL, FE, GF is also at right angles to the plane FK; hence also, if we join FK, GF will be at right angles to FK; and for this reason again the semicircle described on GK will also pass through F. Similarly it will also pass through the remaining angular points of the cube. If then, KG remaining fixed, the semicircle be carried round and restored to the same position from which it began to be moved, the cube will be comprehended in a sphere. I say next that it is also comprehended in the given sphere. For, since GF is equal to FE, and the angle at F is right, therefore the square on EG is double of the square on EF. But EF is equal to EK; therefore the square on EG is double of the square on EK; hence the squares on GE, EK, that is the square on GK [I. 47], is triple of the square on EK. And, since AB is triple of BC, while, as AB is to BC, so is the square on AB to the square on BD, therefore the square on AB is triple of the square on BD. But the square on GK was also proved triple of the square on KE. And KE was made equal to DB; therefore KG is also equal to AB. And AB is the diameter of the given sphere; therefore KG is also equal to the diameter of the given sphere.|