Book XII, Proposition 3

Any pyramid which has a triangular base is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another, similar to the whole and having triangular bases, and into two equal prisms; and the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid.

 Πᾶσα πυραμὶς τρίγωνον ἔχουσα βάσιν διαιρεῖται εἰς δύο πυραμίδας ἴσας τε καὶ ὁμοίας ἀλλήλαις καὶ [ ὁμοίας ] τῇ ὅλῃ τριγώνους ἐχούσας βάσεις καὶ εἰς δύο πρίσματα ἴσα: καὶ τὰ δύο πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστιν ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ τῆς ὅλης πυραμίδος. Ἔστω πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΑΒΓΔ πυραμὶς διαιρεῖται εἰς δύο πυραμίδας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις τριγώνους βάσεις ἐχούσας καὶ ὁμοίας τῇ ὅλῃ καὶ εἰς δύο πρίσματα ἴσα: καὶ τὰ δύο πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστιν ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ τῆς ὅλης πυραμίδος. Τετμήσθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ΓΑ, ΑΔ, ΔΒ, ΔΓ δίχα κατὰ τὰ Ε, Ζ, Η, Θ, Κ, Λ σημεῖα, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΘΕ, ΕΗ, ΗΘ, ΘΚ, ΚΛ, ΛΘ, ΚΖ, ΖΗ. ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΕΒ, ἡ δὲ ΑΘ τῇ ΔΘ, παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΘ τῇ ΔΒ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ΘΚ τῇ ΑΒ παράλληλός ἐστιν. παραλληλόγραμμον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΘΕ ΒΚ: ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΘΚ τῇ ΕΒ. ἀλλὰ ἡ ΕΒ τῇ ΕΑ ἐστιν ἴση: καὶ ἡ ΑΕ ἄρα τῇ ΘΚ ἐστιν ἴση. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΘ τῇ ΘΔ ἴση: δύο δὴ αἱ ΕΑ, ΑΘ δυσὶ ταῖς ΚΘ, ΘΔ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ: καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΑΘ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΘΔ ἴση: βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΘ βάσει τῇ ΚΔ ἐστιν ἴση. ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΕΘ τρίγωνον τῷ ΘΚΔ τριγώνῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΘΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΘΛΔ τριγώνῳ ἴσον τέ ἐστι καὶ ὅμοιον. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἁπτόμεναι ἀλλήλων αἱ ΕΘ, ΘΗ παρὰ δύο εὐθείας ἁπτομένας ἀλλήλων τὰς ΚΔ, ΔΛ εἰσιν οὐκ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ οὖσαι, ἴσας γωνίας περιέξουσιν. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΗ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΔΛ γωνίᾳ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΕΘ, ΘΗ δυσὶ ταῖς ΚΔ, ΔΛ ἴσαι εἰσὶν ἑκατέρα ἑκατέρᾳ, καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΘΗ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΔΛ ἐστιν ἴση, βάσις ἄρα ἡ ΕΗ βάσει τῇ ΚΛ [ ἐστιν ] ἴση: ἴσον ἄρα καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΘΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΚΔΛ τριγώνῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον τῷ ΘΚΛ τριγώνῳ ἴσον τε καὶ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν. ἡ ἄρα πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον, ἴση καὶ ὁμοία ἐστὶ πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. καὶ ἐπεὶ τριγώνου τοῦ ΑΔΒ παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν τὴν ΑΒ ἦκται ἡ ΘΚ, ἰσογώνιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΔΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΘΚ τριγώνῳ, καὶ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνάλογον ἔχουσιν: ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΔΒ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΘΚ τριγώνῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΔΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΔΚΛ τριγώνῳ ὅμοιόν ἐστιν, τὸ δὲ ΑΔΓ τῷ ΔΛΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο εὐθεῖαι ἁπτόμεναι ἀλλήλων αἱ ΒΑ, ΑΓ παρὰ δύο εὐθείας ἁπτομένας ἀλλήλων τὰς ΚΘ, ΘΛ εἰσιν οὐκ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ, ἴσας γωνίας περιέξουσιν. ἴση ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΚΘΛ. καί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΑ πρὸς τὴν ΑΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς τὴν ΘΛ: ὅμοιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΘΚΛ τριγώνῳ. καὶ πυραμὶς ἄρα, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, ὁμοία ἐστὶ πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. ἀλλὰ πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις μὲν [ ἐστι ] τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, ὁμοία ἐδείχθη πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις μέν ἐστι τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον [ ὥστε καὶ πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις μὲν τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, ὁμοία ἐστὶ πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις μὲν τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον ]. ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΕΗΘ, ΘΚΛΔ πυραμίδων ὁμοία ἐστὶ τῇ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΒΓΔ πυραμίδι. ̄Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΒΖ τῇ ΖΓ, διπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΒΖΗ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ ΗΖΓ τριγώνου. καὶ ἐπεί, ἐὰν ᾖ δύο πρίσματα ἰσοϋψῆ, καὶ τὸ μὲν ἔχῃ βάσιν παραλληλόγραμμον, τὸ δὲ τρίγωνον, διπλάσιον δὲ ᾖ τὸ παραλληλόγραμμον τοῦ τριγώνου, ἴσα ἐστὶ τὰ πρίσματα, ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ πρίσμα τὸ περιεχόμενον ὑπὸ δύο μὲν τριγώνων τῶν ΒΚΖ, ΕΘΗ, τριῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων τῶν ΕΒΖΗ, ΕΒΚΘ, ΘΚΖΗ τῷ πρίσματι τῷ περιεχομένῳ ὑπὸ δύο μὲν τριγώνων τῶν ΗΖΓ, ΘΚΛ, τριῶν δὲ παραλληλογράμμων τῶν ΚΖΓΛ, ΛΓΗΘ, ΘΚΖΗ. καὶ φανερόν, ὅτι ἑκάτερον τῶν πρισμάτων, οὗ τε βάσις τὸ ΕΒΖΗ παραλληλόγραμμον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ ἡ ΘΚ εὐθεῖα, καὶ οὗ βάσις τὸ ΗΖΓ τρίγωνον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον, μεῖζόν ἐστιν ἑκατέρας τῶν πυραμίδων, ὧν βάσεις μὲν τὰ ΑΕΗ, ΘΚΛ τρίγωνα, κορυφαὶ δὲ τὰ Θ, Δ σημεῖα, ἐπειδήπερ [ καὶ ] ἐὰν ἐπιζεύξωμεν τὰς ΕΖ, ΕΚ εὐθείας, τὸ μὲν πρίσμα, οὗ βάσις τὸ ΕΒΖΗ παραλληλόγραμμον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ ἡ ΘΚ εὐθεῖα, μεῖζόν ἐστι τῆς πυραμίδος, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΕΒΖ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Κ σημεῖον. ἀλλ' ἡ πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΕΒΖ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Κ σημεῖον, ἴση ἐστὶ πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον: ὑπὸ γὰρ ἴσων καὶ ὁμοίων ἐπιπέδων περιέχονται. ὥστε καὶ τὸ πρίσμα, οὗ βάσις μὲν τὸ ΕΒΖΗ παραλληλόγραμμον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ ἡ ΘΚ εὐθεῖα, μεῖζόν ἐστι πυραμίδος, ἧς βάσις μὲν τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον. ἴσον δὲ τὸ μὲν πρίσμα, οὗ βάσις τὸ ΕΒΖΗ παραλληλόγραμμον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ ἡ ΘΚ εὐθεῖα, τῷ πρίσματι, οὗ βάσις μὲν τὸ ΗΖΓ τρίγωνον, ἀπεναντίον δὲ τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον: ἡ δὲ πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΑΕΗ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Θ σημεῖον, ἴση ἐστὶ πυραμίδι, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΘΚΛ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον. τὰ ἄρα εἰρημένα δύο πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστι τῶν εἰρημένων δύο πυραμίδων, ὧν βάσεις μὲν τὰ ΑΕΗ, ΘΚΛ τρίγωνα, κορυφαὶ δὲ τὰ Θ, Δ σημεῖα. Ἡ ἄρα ὅλη πυραμίς, ἧς βάσις τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον, κορυφὴ δὲ τὸ Δ σημεῖον, διῄρηται εἴς τε δύο πυραμίδας ἴσας ἀλλήλαις [ καὶ ὁμοίας τῇ ὅλῃ ] καὶ εἰς δύο πρίσματα ἴσα, καὶ τὰ δύο πρίσματα μείζονά ἐστιν ἢ τὸ ἥμισυ τῆς ὅλης πυραμίδος: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Any pyramid which has a triangular base is divided into two pyramids equal and similar to one another, similar to the whole and having triangular bases, and into two equal prisms; and the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. Let there be a pyramid of which the triangle ABC is the base and the point D the vertex; I say that the pyramid ABCD is divided into two pyramids equal to one another, having triangular bases and similar to the whole pyramid, and into two equal prisms; and the two prisms are greater than the half of the whole pyramid. For let AB, BC, CA, AD, DB, DC be bisected at the points E, F, G, H, K, L, and let HE, EG, GH, HK, KL, LH, KF, FG be joined. Since AE is equal to EB, and AH to DH, therefore EH is parallel to DB. [VI. 2] For the same reason HK is also parallel to AB. Therefore HEBK is a parallelogram; therefore HK is equal to EB. [I. 34] But EB is equal to EA; therefore AE is also equal to HK. But AH is also equal to HD; therefore the two sides EA, AH are equal to the two sides KH, HD respectively, and the angle EAH is equal to the angle KHD; therefore the base EH is equal to the base KD. [I. 4] Therefore the triangle AEH is equal and similar to the triangle HKD. For the same reason the triangle AHG is also equal and similar to the triangle HLD. Now, since two straight lines EH, HG meeting one another are parallel to two straight lines KD, DL meeting one another, and are not in the same plane, they will contain equal angles. [XI. 10] Therefore the angle EHG is equal to the angle KDL. And, since the two straight lines EH, HG are equal to the two KD, DL respectively, and the angle EHG is equal to the angle KDL, therefore the base EG is equal to the base KL; [I. 4] therefore the triangle EHG is equal and similar to the triangle KDL. For the same reason the triangle AEG is also equal and similar to the triangle HKL. Therefore the pyramid of which the triangle AEG is the base and the point H the vertex is equal and similar to the pyramid of which the triangle HKL is the base and the point D the vertex. [XI. Def. 10] And, since HK has been drawn parallel to AB, one of the sides of the triangle ADB, the triangle ADB is equiangular to the triangle DHK, [I. 29] and they have their sides proportional; therefore the triangle ADB is similar to the triangle DHK. [VI. Def. 1] For the same reason the triangle DBC is also similar to the triangle DKL, and the triangle ADC to the triangle DLH. Now, since the two straight lines BA, AC meeting one another are parallel to the two straight lines KH, HL meeting one another, not in the same plane, they will contain equal angles. [XI. 10] Therefore the angle BAC is equal to the angle KHL. And, as BA is to AC, so is KH to HL; therefore the triangle ABC is similar to the triangle HKL. Therefore also the pyramid of which the triangle ABC is the base and the point D the vertex is similar to the pyramid of which the triangle HKL is the base and the point D the vertex. But the pyramid of which the triangle HKL is the base and the point D the vertex was proved similar to the pyramid of which the triangle AEG is the base and the point H the vertex. Therefore each of the pyramids AEGH, HKLD is similar to the whole pyramid ABCD. Next, since BF is equal to FC, the parallelogram EBFG is double of the triangle GFC. And since, if there be two prisms of equal height, and one have a parallelogram as base, and the other a triangle, and if the parallelogram be double of the triangle, the prisms are equal, [XI. 39] therefore the prism contained by the two triangles BKF, EHG, and the three parallelograms EBFG, EBKH, HKFG is equal to the prism contained by the two triangles GFC, HKL and the three parallelograms KFCL, LCGH, HKFG. And it is manifest that each of the prisms, namely that in which the parallelogram EBFG is the base and the straight line HK is its opposite, and that in which the triangle GFC is the base and the triangle HKL its opposite, is greater than each of the pyramids of which the triangles AEG, HKL are the bases and the points H, D the vertices, inasmuch as, if we join the straight lines EF, EK, the prism in which the parallelogram EBFG is the base and the straight line HK its opposite is greater than the pyramid of which the triangle EBF is the base and the point K the vertex. But the pyramid of which the triangle EBF is the base and the point K the vertex is equal to the pyramid of which the triangle AEG is the base and the point H the vertex; for they are contained by equal and similar planes. Hence also the prism in which the parallelogram EBFG is the base and the straight line HK its opposite is greater than the pyramid of which the triangle AEG is the base and the point H the vertex. But the prism in which the parallelogram EBFG is the base and the straight line HK its opposite is equal to the prism in which the triangle GFC is the base and the triangle HKL its opposite, and the pyramid of which the triangle AEG is the base and the point H the vertex is equal to the pyramid of which the triangle HKL is the base and the point D the vertex. Therefore the said two prisms are greater than the said two pyramids of which the triangles AEG, HKL are the bases and the points H, D the vertices.