If a straight line be drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, it will cut the sides of the triangle proportionally; and, if the sides of the triangle be cut proportionally, the line joining the points of section will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle.

Ἐὰν τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα, ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς: καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν, ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν. Τριγώνου γὰρ τοῦ ΑΒΓ παράλληλος μιᾷ τῶν πλευρῶν τῇ ΒΓ ἤχθω ἡ ΔΕ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. Ἐπεζεύχθωσαν γὰρ αἱ ΒΕ, ΓΔ. Ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ: ἐπὶ γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστι τῆς ΔΕ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ταῖς ΔΕ, ΒΓ: ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. τὰ δὲ ἴσα πρὸς τὸ αὐτὸ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ [ τρίγωνον ], οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ: ὑπὸ γὰρ τὸ αὐτὸ ὕψος ὄντα τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε ἐπὶ τὴν ΑΒ κάθετον ἀγομένην πρὸς ἄλληλά εἰσιν ὡς αἱ βάσεις. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ ὡς τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ αἱ τοῦ ΑΒΓ τριγώνου πλευραὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΓ ἀνάλογον τετμήσθωσαν, ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΔΕ: λέγω, ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. Τῶν γὰρ αὐτῶν κατασκευασθέντων, ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ, ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΑ, οὕτως τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΑ, οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον, καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον, οὕτως τὸ ΓΔΕ τρίγωνον πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τρίγωνον. ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΒΔΕ, ΓΔΕ τριγώνων πρὸς τὸ ΑΔΕ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΒΔΕ τρίγωνον τῷ ΓΔΕ τριγώνῳ: καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως τῆς ΔΕ. τὰ δὲ ἴσα τρίγωνα καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. παράλληλος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΒΓ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τριγώνου παρὰ μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν ἀχθῇ τις εὐθεῖα, ἀνάλογον τεμεῖ τὰς τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράς: καὶ ἐὰν αἱ τοῦ τριγώνου πλευραὶ ἀνάλογον τμηθῶσιν, ἡ ἐπὶ τὰς τομὰς ἐπιζευγνυμένη εὐθεῖα παρὰ τὴν λοιπὴν ἔσται τοῦ τριγώνου πλευράν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If a straight line be drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, it will cut the sides of the triangle proportionally; and, if the sides of the triangle be cut proportionally, the line joining the points of section will be parallel to the remaining side of the triangle. For let DE be drawn parallel to BC, one of the sides of the triangle ABC; I say that, as BD is to DA, so is CE to EA. For let BE, CD be joined. Therefore the triangle BDE is equal to the triangle CDE; for they are on the same base DE and in the same parallels DE, BC. [I. 38] And the triangle ADE is another area. But equals have the same ratio to the same; [V. 7] therefore, as the triangle BDE is to the triangle ADE, so is the triangle CDE to the triangle ADE. But, as the triangle BDE is to ADE, so is BD to DA; for, being under the same height, the perpendicular drawn from E to AB, they are to one another as their bases. [VI. 1] For the same reason also, as the triangle CDE is to ADE, so is CE to EA. Therefore also, as BD is to DA, so is CE to EA. [V. 11] Again, let the sides AB, AC of the triangle ABC be cut proportionally, so that, as BD is to DA, so is CE to EA; and let DE be joined. I say that DE is parallel to BC. For, with the same construction, since, as BD is to DA, so is CE to EA, but, as BD is to DA, so is the triangle BDE to the triangle ADE, and, as CE is to EA, so is the triangle CDE to the triangle ADE, [VI. 1] therefore also, as the triangle BDE is to the triangle ADE, so is the triangle CDE to the triangle ADE. [V. 11] Therefore each of the triangles BDE, CDE has the same ratio to ADE. Therefore the triangle BDE is equal to the triangle CDE; [V. 9] and they are on the same base DE. But equal triangles which are on the same base are also in the same parallels. [I. 39] Therefore DE is parallel to BC. |