## Book XI, Proposition 19

If two planes which cut one another be at right angles to any plane, their common section will also be at right angles to the same plane.

Ἐὰν δύο ἐπίπεδα τέμνοντα ἄλληλα ἐπιπέδῳ τινὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ᾖ, καὶ ἡ κοινὴ αὐτῶν τομὴ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔσται. Δύο γὰρ ἐπίπεδα τὰ ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔστω, κοινὴ δὲ αὐτῶν τομὴ ἔστω ἡ ΒΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΒΔ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν. Μὴ γάρ, καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἐν μὲν τῷ ΑΒ ἐπιπέδῳ τῇ ΑΔ εὐθείᾳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΕ, ἐν δὲ τῷ ΒΓ ἐπιπέδῳ τῇ ΓΔ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἡ ΔΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ΑΒ ἐπίπεδον ὀρθόν ἐστι πρὸς τὸ ὑποκείμενον, καὶ τῇ κοινῇ αὐτῶν τομῇ τῇ ΑΔ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἐν τῷ ΑΒ ἐπιπέδῳ ἦκται ἡ ΔΕ, ἡ ΔΕ ἄρα ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς τὸ ὑποκείμενον ἐπίπεδον. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΔΖ ὀρθή ἐστι πρὸς τὸ ὑποκείμενον ἐπίπεδον. ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἄρα σημείου τοῦ Δ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀνεσταμέναι εἰσὶν ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δ σημείου ἀνασταθήσεται πρὸς ὀρθὰς πλὴν τῆς ΔΒ κοινῆς τομῆς τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἐπιπέδων. Ἐὰν ἄρα δύο ἐπίπεδα τέμνοντα ἄλληλα ἐπιπέδῳ τινὶ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ᾖ, καὶ ἡ κοινὴ αὐτῶν τομὴ τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἔσται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. | If two planes which cut one another be at right angles to any plane, their common section will also be at right angles to the same plane. For let the two planes AB, BC be at right angles to the plane of reference, and let BD be their common section; I say that BD is at right angles to the plane of reference. For suppose it is not, and from the point D let DE be drawn in the plane AB at right angles to the straight line AD, and DF in the plane BC at right angles to CD. Now, since the plane AB is at right angles to the plane of reference, and DE has been drawn in the plane AB at right angles to AD, their common section, therefore DE is at right angles to the plane of reference. [XI. Def. 4] Similarly we can prove that DF is also at right angles to the plane of reference. Therefore from the same point D two straight lines have been set up at right angles to the plane of reference on the same side: which is impossible. [XI. 13] Therefore no straight line except the common section DB of the planes AB, BC can be set up from the point D at right angles to the plane of reference. |