## Book X, Proposition 105

A straight line commensurable with a minor straight line is minor.

 Ἡ τῇ ἐλάσσονι σύμμετρος ἐλάσσων ἐστίν. Ἔστω γὰρ ἐλάσσων ἡ ΑΒ καὶ τῇ ΑΒ σύμμετρος ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΔ ἐλάσσων ἐστίν. Γεγονέτω γὰρ τὰ αὐτά: καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι, καὶ αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ, ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ. συνθέντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΒ, οὕτως τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΔ [ καὶ ἐναλλάξ ]: σύμμετρον δέ ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΔΖ: σύμμετρον ἄρα καὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ τετραγώνων τῷ συγκειμένῳ ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ τετραγώνων. ῥητὸν δέ ἐστι τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ τετραγώνων: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ τετραγώνων. πάλιν, ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ, σύμμετρον δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τετράγωνον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ τετραγώνῳ, σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. μέσον δὲ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ: μέσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ: αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα δυνάμει εἰσὶν ἀσύμμετροι ποιοῦσαι τὸ μὲν συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων ῥητόν, τὸ δ' ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέσον. Ἐλάσσων ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΓΔ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A straight line commensurable with a minor straight line is minor. Let AB be a minor straight line, and CD commensurable with AB; I say that CD is also minor. Let the same construction be made as before; then, since AE, EB are incommensurable in square, [X. 76] therefore CF, FD are also incommensurable in square. [X. 13] Now since, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD, [V. 12, V. 16] therefore also, as the square on AE is to the square on EB, so is the square on CF to the square on FD. [VI. 22] Therefore, componendo, as the squares on AE, EB are to the square on EB, so are the squares on CF, FD to the square on FD. [V. 18] But the square on BE is commensurable with the square on DF; therefore the sum of the squares on AE, EB is also commensurable with the sum of the squares on CF, FD. [V. 16, X. 11] But the sum of the squares on AE, EB is rational; [X. 76] therefore the sum of the squares on CF, FD is also rational. [X. Def. 4] Again, since, as the square on AE is to the rectangle AE, EB, so is the square on CF to the rectangle CF, FD, while the square on AE is commensurable with the square on CF, therefore the rectangle AE, EB is also commensurable with the rectangle CF, FD. But the rectangle AE, EB is medial; [X. 76] therefore the rectangle CF, FD is also medial; [X. 23, Por.] therefore CF, FD are straight lines incommensurable in square which make the sum of the squares on them rational, but the rectangle contained by them medial.