## Book X, Proposition 104

A straight line commensurable with an apotome of a medial straight line is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order.

 Ἡ τῇ μέσης ἀποτομῇ σύμμετρος μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτή. Ἔστω μέσης ἀποτομὴ ἡ ΑΒ, καὶ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει σύμμετρος ἔστω ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἡ ΓΔ μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστιν ἡ ΑΒ, ἔστω αὐτῇ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΕΒ. αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΒ ἄρα μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ γεγονέτω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΒΕ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ: σύμμετρος ἄρα [ ἐστὶ ] καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΖ, ἡ δὲ ΒΕ τῇ ΔΖ. αἱ δὲ ΑΕ, ΕΒ μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: καὶ αἱ ΓΖ, ΖΔ ἄρα μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: μέσης ἄρα ἀποτομή ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ. Λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ τῇ τάξει ἐστὶν ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ. Ἐπεὶ [ γάρ ] ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ [ ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΖ πρὸς τὴν ΖΔ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ ], ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ [ καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ὡς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ, οὕτως τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ πρὸς τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ ]. σύμμετρον δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΖ: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. εἴτε οὖν ῥητόν ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, ῥητὸν ἔσται καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ, εἴτε μέσον [ ἐστὶ ] τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΕ, ΕΒ, μέσον [ ἐστὶ ] καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΖ, ΖΔ. Μέσης ἄρα ἀποτομή ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ καὶ τῇ τάξει ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ΑΒ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. A straight line commensurable with an apotome of a medial straight line is an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order. Let AB be an apotome of a medial straight line, and let CD be commensurable in length with AB; I say that CD is also an apotome of a medial straight line and the same in order with AB. For, since AB is an apotome of a medial straight line, let EB be the annex to it. Therefore AE, EB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 74, 75] Let it be contrived that, as AB is to CD, so is BE to DF; [VI. 12] therefore AE is also commensurable with CF, and BE with DF. [V. 12, X. 11] But AE, EB are medial straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore CF, FD are also medial straight lines [X. 23] commensurable in square only; [X. 13] therefore CD is an apotome of a medial straight line. [X. 74, 75] I say next that it is also the same in order with AB. Since, as AE is to EB, so is CF to FD, therefore also, as the square on AE is to the rectangle AE, EB, so is the square on CF to the rectangle CF, FD. But the square on AE is commensurable with the square on CF; therefore the rectangle AE, EB is also commensurable with the rectangle CF, FD. [V. 16, X. 11] Therefore, if the rectangle AE, EB is rational, the rectangle CF, FD will also be rational, [X. Def. 4] and if the rectangle AE, EB is medial, the rectangle CF, FD is also medial. [X. 23, Por.]