# Book 5 Proposition 16

Ἐὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται. Ἔστω τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἐναλλὰξ [ἀνάλογον] ἔσται, ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν Α, Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Ε, Ζ, τῶν δὲ Γ, Δ ἄλλα, ἃ ἔτυχεν, ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια τὰ Η, Θ. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσιον τὸ Ε τοῦ Α καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Β, τὰ δὲ μέρη τοῖς ὡσαύτως πολλαπλασίοις τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὰ Η, Θ τῶν Γ, Δ ἰσάκις ἐστὶ πολλαπλάσια, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ, οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ, [οὕτως] τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, οὕτως τὸ Η πρὸς τὸ Θ. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ δεύτερον τοῦ τετάρτου μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. εἰ ἄρα ὑπερέχει τὸ Ε τοῦ Η, ὑπερέχει καὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Θ, καὶ εἰ ἴσον, ἴσον, καὶ εἰ ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. καί ἐστι τὰ μὲν Ε, Ζ τῶν Α, Β ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια, τὰ δὲ Η, Θ τῶν Γ, Δ ἄλλα, ἃ ἔτυχεν, ἰσάκις πολλαπλάσια: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Δ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ ἐναλλὰξ ἀνάλογον ἔσται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If four magnitudes be proportional, they will also be proportional alternately. Let A, B, C, D be four proportional magnitudes, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D; I say that they will also be so alternately, that is, as A is to C, so is B to D. For of A, B let equimultiples E, F be taken, and of C, D other, chance, equimultiples G, H. Then, since E is the same multiple of A that F is of B, and parts have the same ratio as the same multiples of them, [V. 15] therefore, as A is to B, so is E to F. But as A is to B, so is C to D; therefore also, as C is to D, so is E to F. [V. 11] Again, since G, H are equimultiples of C, D, therefore, as C is to D, so is G to H. [V. 15] But, as C is to D, so is E to F; therefore also, as E is to F, so is G to H. [V. 11] But, if four magnitudes be proportional, and the first be greater than the third, the second will also be greater than the fourth; if equal, equal; and if less, less. [V. 14] Therefore, if E is in excess of G, F is also in excess of H, if equal, equal, and if less, less. Now E, F are equimultiples of A, B, and G, H other, chance, equimultiples of C, D; therefore, as A is to C, so is B to D. [V. Def. 5]