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Book 11 Proposition 13



Ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι πρὸς ὀρθὰς οὐκ ἀναστήσονται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη. Εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου τοῦ Α τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι αἱ ΑΒ, ΑΓ πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀνεστάτωσαν ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη, καὶ διήχθω τὸ διὰ τῶν ΒΑ, ΑΓ ἐπίπεδον: τομὴν δὴ ποιήσει διὰ τοῦ Α ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ εὐθεῖαν. ποιείτω τὴν ΔΑΕ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΒ, ΑΓ, ΔΑΕ εὐθεῖαι ἐν ἑνί εἰσιν ἐπιπέδῳ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΓΑ τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ πρὸς ὀρθάς ἐστιν, καὶ πρὸς πάσας ἄρα τὰς ἁπτομένας αὐτῆς εὐθείας καὶ οὔσας ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ ὀρθὰς ποιήσει γωνίας. ἅπτεται δὲ αὐτῆς ἡ ΔΑΕ οὖσα ἐν τῷ ὑποκειμένῳ ἐπιπέδῳ: ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ γωνία ὀρθή ἐστιν. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ ὀρθή ἐστιν: ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΑΕ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΑΕ. καί εἰσιν ἐν ἑνὶ ἐπιπέδῳ: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. Οὐκ ἄρα ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου τῷ αὐτῷ ἐπιπέδῳ δύο εὐθεῖαι πρὸς ὀρθὰς ἀνασταθήσονται ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

From the same point two straight lines cannot be set up at right angles to the same plane on the same side. For, if possible, from the same point A let the two straight lines AB, AC be set up at right angles to the plane of reference and on the same side, and let a plane be drawn through BA, AC; it will then make, as section through A in the plane of reference, a straight line. [XI. 3] Let it make DAE; therefore the straight lines AB, AC, DAE are in one plane. And, since CA is at right angles to the plane of reference, it will also make right angles with all the straight lines which meet it and are in the plane of reference. [XI. Def. 3] But DAE meets it and is in the plane of reference; therefore the angle CAE is right. For the same reason the angle BAE is also right; therefore the angle CAE is equal to the angle BAE. And they are in one plane: which is impossible.