Book 10 Proposition 92
Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ ἀποτομῆς δευτέρας, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη. Χωρίον γὰρ τὸ ΑΒ περιεχέσθω ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΓ καὶ ἀποτομῆς δευτέρας τῆς ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον δυναμένη μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΑΔ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΔΗ: αἱ ἄρα ΑΗ, ΗΔ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι, καὶ ἡ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΔΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΑΓ, ἡ δὲ ὅλη ἡ ΑΗ τῆς προσαρμοζούσης τῆς ΗΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ μήκει. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ ΑΗ τῆς ΗΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, ἐὰν ἄρα τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΗΔ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβληθῇ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ. τετμήσθω οὖν ἡ ΔΗ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ε: καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΑΗ παραβεβλήσθω ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, καὶ ἔστω τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΖ τῇ ΖΗ μήκει. καὶ ἡ ΑΗ ἄρα ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι μήκει. ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΑΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει: καὶ ἑκατέρα ἄρα τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ ῥητή ἐστι καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει: ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΑΙ, ΖΚ μέσον ἐστίν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΗ, καὶ ἡ ΔΗ ἄρα ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΔΕ, ΕΗ σύμμετρός ἐστιν. ἀλλ' ἡ ΔΗ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ΑΓ μήκει. [ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΔΕ, ΕΗ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΑΓ μήκει.] ἑκάτερον ἄρα τῶν ΔΘ, ΕΚ ῥητόν ἐστιν. Συνεστάτω οὖν τῷ μὲν ΑΙ ἴσον τετράγωνον τὸ ΛΜ, τῷ δὲ ΖΚ ἴσον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΝΞ περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν γωνίαν ὂν τῷ ΛΜ τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν ΛΟΜ: περὶ τὴν αὐτὴν ἄρα ἐστὶ διάμετρον τὰ ΛΜ, ΝΞ τετράγωνα. ἔστω αὐτῶν διάμετρος ἡ ΟΡ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω τὸ σχῆμα. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὰ ΑΙ, ΖΚ μέσα ἐστὶ καί ἐστιν ἴσα τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ, καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ [ἄρα] μέσα ἐστίν: καὶ αἱ ΛΟ, ΟΝ ἄρα μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΖ, ΖΗ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΗ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΕΗ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΗ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ: ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΖ πρὸς τὴν ΕΗ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΙ πρὸς τὸ ΕΚ: ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΗ πρὸς τὴν ΖΗ, οὕτως [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΕΚ πρὸς τὸ ΖΚ: τῶν ἄρα ΑΙ, ΖΚ μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΚ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῶν ΛΜ, ΝΞ τετραγώνων μέσον ἀνάλογον τὸ ΜΝ: καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ μὲν ΑΙ τῷ ΛΜ, τὸ δὲ ΖΚ τῷ ΝΞ: καὶ τὸ ΜΝ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΕΚ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ΕΚ ἴσον [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΔΘ, τῷ δὲ ΜΝ ἴσον τὸ ΛΞ: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΔΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΥΦΧ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΝΞ. ἐπεὶ οὖν ὅλον τὸ ΑΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ΛΜ, ΝΞ, ὧν τὸ ΔΚ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΥΦΧ γνώμονι καὶ τῷ ΝΞ, λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΤΣ. τὸ δὲ ΤΣ ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΛΝ: τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΛΝ ἄρα ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΑΒ χωρίῳ: ἡ ΛΝ ἄρα δύναται τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον. Λέγω [δή], ὅτι ἡ ΛΝ μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ῥητόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΚ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΛΞ, ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΞ, τουτέστι τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΛΟ, ΟΝ. μέσον δὲ ἐδείχθη τὸ ΝΞ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΛΞ τῷ ΝΞ: ὡς δὲ τὸ ΛΞ πρὸς τὸ ΝΞ, οὕτως ἐστὶν ἡ ΛΟ πρὸς ΟΝ: αἱ ΛΟ, ΟΝ ἄρα ἀσύμμετροί εἰσι μήκει. αἱ ἄρα ΛΟ, ΟΝ μέσαι εἰσὶ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι ῥητὸν περιέχουσαι: ἡ ΛΝ ἄρα μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη: καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον. Ἡ ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ χωρίον δυναμένη μέσης ἀποτομή ἐστι πρώτη: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If an area be contained by a rational straight line and a second apotome, the “side” of the area is a first apotome of a medial straight line. For let the area AB be contained by the rational straight line AC and the second apotome AD; I say that the “side” of the area AB is a first apotome of a medial straight line. For let DG be the annex to AD; therefore AG, GD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, [X. 73] and the annex DG is commensurable with the rational straight line AC set out, while the square on the whole AG is greater than the square on the annex GD by the square on a straight line commensurable in length with AG. [X. Deff. III. 2] Since then the square on AG is greater than the square on GD by the square on a straight line commensurable with AG, therefore, if there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on GD and deficient by a square figure, it divides it into commensurable parts. [X. 17] Let then DG be bisected at E, let there be applied to AG a parallelogram equal to the square on EG and deficient by a square figure, and let it be the rectangle AF, FG; therefore AF is commensurable in length with FG. Therefore AG is also commensurable in length with each of the straight lines AF, FG. [X. 15] But AG is rational and incommensurable in length with AC; therefore each of the straight lines AF, FG is also rational and incommensurable in length with AC; [X. 13] therefore each of the rectangles AI, FK is medial. [X. 21] Again, since DE is commensurable with EG, therefore DG is also commensurable with each of the straight lines DE, EG. [X. 15] But DG is commensurable in length with AC. Therefore each of the rectangles DH, EK is rational. [X. 19] Let then the square LM be constructed equal to AI, and let there be subtracted NO equal to FK and being about the same angle with LM, namely the angle LPM; therefore the squares LM, NO are about the same diameter. [VI. 26] Let PR be their diameter, and let the figure be drawn. Since then AI, FK are medial and are equal to the squares on LP, PN, the squares on LP, PN are also medial; therefore LP, PN are also medial straight lines commensurable in square only. And, since the rectangle AF, FG is equal to the square on EG, therefore, as AF is to EG, so is EG to FG, [VI. 17] while, as AF is to EG, so is AI to EK, and, as EG is to FG, so is EK to FK; [VI. 1] therefore EK is a mean proportional between AI, FK. [V. 11] But MN is also a mean proportional between the squares LM, NO, and AI is equal to LM, and FK to NO; therefore MN is also equal to EK. But DH is equal to EK, and LO equal to MN; therefore the whole DK is equal to the gnomon UVW and NO. Since then the whole AK is equal to LM, NO, and, in these, DK is equal to the gnomon UVW and NO, therefore the remainder AB is equal to TS. But TS is the square on LN; therefore the square on LN is equal to the area AB; therefore LN is the “side” of the area AB. I say that LN is a first apotome of a medial straight line. For, since EK is rational and is equal to LO, therefore LO, that is, the rectangle LP, PN, is rational. But NO was proved medial; therefore LO is incommensurable with NO. But, as LO is to NO, so is LP to PN; [VI. 1] therefore LP, PN are incommensurable in length. [X. 11] Therefore LP, PN are medial straight lines commensurable in square only which contain a rational rectangle; therefore LN is a first apotome of a medial straight line. [X. 74] And it is the “side” of the area AB.