# Book 10 Proposition 75

Ἐὰν ἀπὸ μέσης μέση ἀφαιρεθῇ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλη, μετὰ δὲ τῆς ὅλης μέσον περιέχουσα, ἡ λοιπὴ ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ δευτέρα. Ἀπὸ γὰρ μέσης τῆς ΑΒ μέση ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΓΒ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ τῇ ΑΒ, μετὰ δὲ τῆς ὅλης τῆς ΑΒ μέσον περιέχουσα τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ λοιπὴ ἡ ΑΓ ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ δευτέρα. Ἐκκείσθω γὰρ ῥητὴ ἡ ΔΙ, καὶ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΔΙ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΔΕ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ, τῷ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΔΙ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΔΘ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΖ: λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ. καὶ ἐπεὶ μέσα καὶ σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, μέσον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΔΕ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΙ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΔΙ μήκει. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ μέσον ἐστὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, καὶ τὸ δὶς ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ μέσον ἐστίν. καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΔΘ: καὶ τὸ ΔΘ ἄρα μέσον ἐστίν. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΙ παραβέβληται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΖ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΖ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΔΙ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ αἱ ΑΒ, ΒΓ δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροί εἰσιν, ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΒ τῇ ΒΓ μήκει: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ τετράγωνον τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ. ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΒ σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, τῷ δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ. ἴσον δὲ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τὸ ΔΕ, τῷ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τὸ ΔΘ: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΔΕ τῷ ΔΘ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΘ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΗΔ τῇ ΔΖ. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ἄρα ΗΔ, ΔΖ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἡ ΖΗ ἄρα ἀποτομή ἐστιν. ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΔΙ: τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ ἀλόγου περιεχόμενον ἄλογόν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ δυναμένη αὐτὸ ἄλογός ἐστιν. καὶ δύναται τὸ ΖΕ ἡ ΑΓ: ἡ ΑΓ ἄρα ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ μέσης ἀποτομὴ δευτέρα. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If from a medial straight line there be subtracted a medial straight line which is commensurable with the whole in square only, and which contains with the whole a medial rectangle, the remainder is irrational; and let it be called a second apotome of a medial straight line. For from the medial straight line AB let there be subtracted the medial straight line CB which is commensurable with the whole AB in square only and such that the rectangle AB, BC, which it contains with the whole AB, is medial; I say that the remainder AC is irrational; and let it be called a second apotome of a medial straight line. For let a rational straight line DI be set out, let DE equal to the squares on AB, BC be applied to DI, producing DG as breadth, and let DH equal to twice the rectangle AB, BC be applied to DI, producing DF as breadth; therefore the remainder FE is equal to the square on AC. [II. 7] Now, since the squares on AB, BC are medial and commensurable, therefore DE is also medial. [X. 15 and 23, Por.] And it is applied to the rational straight line DI, producing DG as breadth; therefore DG is rational and incommensurable in length with DI. [X. 22] Again, since the rectangle AB, BC is medial, therefore twice the rectangle AB, BC is also medial. [X. 23, Por.] And it is equal to DH; therefore DH is also medial. And it has been applied to the rational straight line DI, producing DF as breadth; therefore DF is rational and incommensurable in length with DI. [X. 22] And, since AB, BC are commensurable in square only, therefore AB is incommensurable in length with BC; therefore the square on AB is also incommensurable with the rectangle AB, BC. [X. 11] But the squares on AB, BC are commensurable with the square on AB, [X. 15] and twice the rectangle AB, BC is commensurable with the rectangle AB, BC; [X. 6] therefore twice the rectangle AB, BC is incommensurable with the squares on AB, BC. [X. 13] But DE is equal to the squares on AB, BC, and DH to twice the rectangle AB, BC; therefore DE is incommensurable with DH. But, as DE is to DH, so is GD to DF; [VI. 1] therefore GD is incommensurable with DF. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore GD, DF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore FG is an apotome. [X. 73] But DI is rational, and the rectangle contained by a rational and an irrational straight line is irrational, [deduction from X. 20] and its ‘side’ is irrational. And AC is the ‘side’ of FE; therefore AC is irrational.