Book 10 Proposition 54
Ἐὰν χωρίον περιέχηται ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πρώτης, ἡ τὸ χωρίον δυναμένη ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων. Χωρίον γὰρ τὸ ΑΓ περιεχέσθω ὑπὸ ῥητῆς τῆς ΑΒ καὶ τῆς ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων πρώτης τῆς ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ τὸ ΑΓ χωρίον δυναμένη ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ πρώτη ἡ ΑΔ, διῃρήσθω εἰς τὰ ὀνόματα κατὰ τὸ Ε, καὶ ἔστω τὸ μεῖζον ὄνομα τὸ ΑΕ. φανερὸν δή, ὅτι αἱ ΑΕ, ΕΔ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι, καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΑΕ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ τῇ ΑΒ μήκει. τετμήσθω δὴ ἡ ΕΔ δίχα κατὰ τὸ Ζ σημεῖον. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῆς ΕΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, ἐὰν ἄρα τῷ τετάρτῳ μέρει τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐλάσσονος, τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ, ἴσον παρὰ τὴν μείζονα τὴν ΑΕ παραβληθῇ ἐλλεῖπον εἴδει τετραγώνῳ, εἰς σύμμετρα αὐτὴν διαιρεῖ. παραβεβλήσθω οὖν παρὰ τὴν ΑΕ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ ἴσον τὸ ὑπὸ ΑΗ, ΗΕ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΕΗ μήκει. καὶ ἤχθωσαν ἀπὸ τῶν Η, Ε, Ζ ὁποτέρᾳ τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ παράλληλοι αἱ ΗΘ, ΕΚ, ΖΛ: καὶ τῷ μὲν ΑΘ παραλληλογράμμῳ ἴσον τετράγωνον συνεστάτω τὸ ΣΝ, τῷ δὲ ΗΚ ἴσον τὸ ΝΠ, καὶ κείσθω ὥστε ἐπ' εὐθείας εἶναι τὴν ΜΝ τῇ ΝΞ: ἐπ' εὐθείας ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΡΝ τῇ ΝΟ. καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΣΠ παραλληλόγραμμον: τετράγωνον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΣΠ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΕΖ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΗ πρὸς ΕΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΖΕ πρὸς ΕΗ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΘ πρὸς ΕΛ, τὸ ΕΛ πρὸς ΚΗ: τῶν ΑΘ, ΗΚ ἄρα μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ. ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ΑΘ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ΣΝ, τὸ δὲ ΗΚ ἴσον τῷ ΝΠ: τῶν ΣΝ, ΝΠ ἄρα μέσον ἀνάλογόν ἐστι τὸ ΕΛ. ἔστι δὲ τῶν αὐτῶν τῶν ΣΝ, ΝΠ μέσον ἀνάλογον καὶ τὸ ΜΡ: ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΡ: ὥστε καὶ τῷ ΟΞ ἴσον ἐστίν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τὰ ΑΘ, ΗΚ τοῖς ΣΝ, ΝΠ ἴσα: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΑΓ ἴσον ἐστὶν ὅλῳ τῷ ΣΠ, τουτέστι τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΞ τετραγώνῳ: τὸ ΑΓ ἄρα δύναται ἡ ΜΞ. Λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ΜΞ ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστίν. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΗΕ, σύμμετρός ἐστι καὶ ἡ ΑΕ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΕ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΑΒ σύμμετρος: καὶ αἱ ΑΗ, ΗΕ ἄρα τῇ ΑΒ σύμμετροί εἰσιν. καί ἐστι ῥητὴ ἡ ΑΒ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἑκατέρα τῶν ΑΗ, ΗΕ: ῥητὸν ἄρα ἐστὶν ἑκάτερον τῶν ΑΘ, ΗΚ, καί ἐστι σύμμετρον τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΗΚ. ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ΑΘ τῷ ΣΝ ἴσον ἐστίν, τὸ δὲ ΗΚ τῷ ΝΠ: καὶ τὰ ΣΝ, ΝΠ ἄρα, τουτέστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΜΝ, ΝΞ, ῥητά ἐστι καὶ σύμμετρα. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΕΔ μήκει, ἀλλ' ἡ μὲν ΑΕ τῇ ΑΗ ἐστι σύμμετρος, ἡ δὲ ΔΕ τῇ ΕΖ σύμμετρος, ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΑΗ τῇ ΕΖ: ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΘ τῷ ΕΛ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστιν. ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν ΑΘ τῷ ΣΝ ἐστιν ἴσον, τὸ δὲ ΕΛ τῷ ΜΡ: καὶ τὸ ΣΝ ἄρα τῷ ΜΡ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστιν. ἀλλ' ὡς τὸ ΣΝ πρὸς ΜΡ, ἡ ΟΝ πρὸς τὴν ΝΡ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΟΝ τῇ ΝΡ. ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΟΝ τῇ ΜΝ, ἡ δὲ ΝΡ τῇ ΝΞ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΜΝ τῇ ΝΞ. καί ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΜΝ σύμμετρον τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΝΞ, καὶ ῥητὸν ἑκάτερον: αἱ ΜΝ, ΝΞ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. Ἡ ΜΞ ἄρα ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶ καὶ δύναται τὸ ΑΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If an area be contained by a rational straight line and the first binomial, the “side” of the area is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. For let the area AC be contained by the rational straight line AB and the first binomial AD; I say that the “side” of the area AC is the irrational straight line which is called binomial. For, since AD is a first binomial straight line, let it be divided into its terms at E, and let AE be the greater term. It is then manifest that AE, ED are rational straight lines commensurable in square only, the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE, and AE is commensurable in length with the rational straight line AB set out. [X. Deff. II. 1] Let ED be bisected at the point F. Then, since the square on AE is greater than the square on ED by the square on a straight line commensurable with AE, therefore, if there be applied to the greater AE a parallelogram equal to the fourth part of the square on the less, that is, to the square on EF, and deficient by a square figure, it divides it into commensurable parts. [X. 17] Let then the rectangle AG, GE equal to the square on EF be applied to AE; therefore AG is commensurable in length with EG. Let GH, EK, FL be drawn from G, E, F parallel to either of the straight lines AB, CD; let the square SN be constructed equal to the parallelogram AH, and the square NQ equal to GK, [II. 14] and let them be placed so that MN is in a straight line with NO; therefore RN is also in a straight line with NP. And let the parallelogram SQ be completed; therefore SQ is a square. [Lemma] Now, since the rectangle AG, GE is equal to the square on EF, therefore, as AG is to EF, so is FE to EG; [VI. 17] therefore also, as AH is to EL, so is EL to KG; [VI. 1] therefore EL is a mean proportional between AH, GK. But AH is equal to SN, and GK to NQ; therefore EL is a mean proportional between SN, NQ. But MR is also a mean proportional between the same SN, NQ; [Lemma] therefore EL is equal to MR, so that it is also equal to PO. But AH, GK are also equal to SN, NQ; therefore the whole AC is equal to the whole SQ, that is, to the square on MO; therefore MO is the “side” of AC. I say next that MO is binomial. For, since AG is commensurable with GE, therefore AE is also commensurable with each of the straight lines AG, GE. [X. 15] But AE is also, by hypothesis, commensurable with AB; therefore AG, GE are also commensurable with AB. [X. 12] And AB is rational; therefore each of the straight lines AG, GE is also rational; therefore each of the rectangles AH, GK is rational, [X. 19] and AH is commensurable with GK. But AH is equal to SN, and GK to NQ; therefore SN, NQ, that is, the squares on MN, NO, are rational and commensurable. And, since AE is incommensurable in length with ED, while AE is commensurable with AG, and DE is commensurable with EF, therefore AG is also incommensurable with EF, [X. 13] so that AH is also incommensurable with EL. [VI. 1, X. 11] But AH is equal to SN, and EL to MR; therefore SN is also incommensurable with MR. But, as SN is to MR, so is PN to NR; [VI. 1] therefore PN is incommensurable with NR. [X. 11] But PN is equal to MN, and NR to NO; therefore MN is incommensurable with NO. And the square on MN is commensurable with the square on NO, and each is rational; therefore MN, NO are rational straight lines commensurable in square only.