# Book 10 Proposition 12

Τὰ τῷ αὐτῷ μεγέθει σύμμετρα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶ σύμμετρα. Ἑκάτερον γὰρ τῶν Α, Β τῷ Γ ἔστω σύμμετρον. λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἐστι σύμμετρον. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Γ, τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Γ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν. ἐχέτω, ὃν ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ Γ τῷ Β, τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν. ἐχέτω, ὃν ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. καὶ λόγων δοθέντων ὁποσωνοῦν τοῦ τε, ὃν ἔχει ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, καὶ ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η εἰλήφθωσαν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἐν τοῖς δοθεῖσι λόγοις οἱ Θ, Κ, Λ: ὥστε εἶναι ὡς μὲν τὸν Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως τὸν Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ, ὡς δὲ τὸν Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως τὸν Κ πρὸς τὸν Λ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ, ἔστιν ἄρα καὶ ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. πάλιν, ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, [οὕτως] ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Λ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Λ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Λ. τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς ὁ Θ πρὸς ἀριθμὸν τὸν Λ: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Α τῷ Β. Τὰ ἄρα τῷ αὐτῷ μεγέθει σύμμετρα καὶ ἀλλήλοις ἐστὶ σύμμετρα: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Magnitudes commensurable with the same magnitude are commensurable with one another also. For let each of the magnitudes A, B be commensurable with C; I say that A is also commensurable with B. For, since A is commensurable with C, therefore A has to C the ratio which a number has to a number. [X. 5] Let it have the ratio which D has to E. Again, since C is commensurable with B, therefore C has to B the ratio which a number has to a number. [X. 5] Let it have the ratio which F has to G. And, given any number of ratios we please, namely the ratio which D has to E and that which F has to G, let the numbers H, K, L be taken continuously in the given ratios; [cf. VIII. 4] so that, as D is to E, so is H to K, and, as F is to G, so is K to L. Since, then, as A is to C, so is D to E, while, as D is to E, so is H to K, therefore also, as A is to C, so is H to K. [V. 11] Again, since, as C is to B, so is F to G, while, as F is to G, so is K to L, therefore also, as C is to B, so is K to L. [V. 11] But also, as A is to C, so is H to K; therefore, ex aequali, as A is to B, so is H to L. [V. 22] Therefore A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number; therefore A is commensurable with B. [X. 6]