# Book 10 Proposition 113

Τὸ ἀπὸ ῥητῆς παρὰ ἀποτομὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ τὴν ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ἀποτομῆς ὀνόμασι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ἔτι δὲ ἡ γινομένη ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων τὴν αὐτὴν τάξιν ἔχει τῇ ἀποτομῇ. Ἔστω ῥητὴ μὲν ἡ Α, ἀποτομὴ δὲ ἡ ΒΔ, καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσον ἔστω τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔ, ΚΘ, ὥστε τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ῥητῆς παρὰ τὴν ΒΔ ἀποτομὴν παραβαλλόμενον πλάτος ποιεῖ τὴν ΚΘ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα σύμμετρά ἐστι τοῖς τῆς ΒΔ ὀνόμασι καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΚΘ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει τάξιν τῇ ΒΔ. Ἔστω γὰρ τῇ ΒΔ προσαρμόζουσα ἡ ΔΓ: αἱ ΒΓ, ΓΔ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. καὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς Α ἴσον ἔστω καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, Η. ῥητὸν δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς Α: ῥητὸν ἄρα καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, Η. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΒΓ παραβέβληται: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ Η καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΒΓ μήκει. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, Η ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ΒΔ, ΚΘ, ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς Η. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΒΔ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΚΘ τῆς Η. κείσθω τῇ Η ἴση ἡ ΚΕ: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΕ τῇ ΒΓ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς ΒΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΚ πρὸς ΚΕ, ἀναστρέψαντι ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς ΘΕ. γεγονέτω ὡς ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς ΘΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΖ πρὸς ΖΕ: καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ΚΖ πρὸς ΖΘ ἐστιν, ὡς ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς ΘΕ, τουτέστιν [ὡς] ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΓΔ. αἱ δὲ ΒΓ, ΓΔ δυνάμει μόνον [εἰσὶ] σύμμετροι: καὶ αἱ ΚΖ, ΖΘ ἄρα δυνάμει μόνον εἰσὶ σύμμετροι. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς ΘΕ, ἡ ΚΖ πρὸς ΖΘ, ἀλλ' ὡς ἡ ΚΘ πρὸς ΘΕ, ἡ ΘΖ πρὸς ΖΕ, καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΚΖ πρὸς ΖΘ, ἡ ΘΖ πρὸς ΖΕ: ὥστε καὶ ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τρίτην, τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ἡ ΚΖ πρὸς ΖΕ, οὕτως τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΚΖ πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΘ. σύμμετρον δέ ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΚΖ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΖΘ: αἱ γὰρ ΚΖ, ΖΘ δυνάμει εἰσὶ σύμμετροι: σύμμετρος ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΚΖ τῇ ΖΕ μήκει: ὥστε ἡ ΚΖ καὶ τῇ ΚΕ σύμμετρός [ἐστι] μήκει. ῥητὴ δέ ἐστιν ἡ ΚΕ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΒΓ μήκει: ῥητὴ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΚΖ καὶ σύμμετρος τῇ ΒΓ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΚΖ πρὸς ΖΘ, ἐναλλὰξ ὡς ἡ ΒΓ πρὸς ΚΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς ΖΘ. σύμμετρος δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ΚΖ: σύμμετρος ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΖΘ τῇ ΓΔ μήκει. αἱ ΒΓ, ΓΔ δὲ ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: καὶ αἱ ΚΖ, ΖΘ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι: ἐκ δύο ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἄρα ἡ ΚΘ. Εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΓΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΚΖ τῆς ΖΘ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ συμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΚΖ, εἰ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ σύμμετρός ἐστι τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΖΘ, εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΒΓ, ΓΔ, οὐδετέρα τῶν ΚΖ, ΖΘ. Εἰ δὲ ἡ ΒΓ τῆς ΓΔ μεῖζον δύναται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ, καὶ ἡ ΚΖ τῆς ΖΘ μεῖζον δυνήσεται τῷ ἀπὸ ἀσυμμέτρου ἑαυτῇ. καὶ εἰ μὲν σύμμετρός ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ τῇ ἐκκειμένῃ ῥητῇ μήκει, καὶ ἡ ΚΖ, εἰ δὲ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ ἡ ΖΘ, εἰ δὲ οὐδετέρα τῶν ΒΓ, ΓΔ, οὐδετέρα τῶν ΚΖ, ΖΘ. Ἐκ δύο ἄρα ὀνομάτων ἐστὶν ἡ ΚΘ, ἧς τὰ ὀνόματα τὰ ΚΖ, ΖΘ σύμμετρά [ἐστι] τοῖς τῆς ἀποτομῆς ὀνόμασι τοῖς ΒΓ, ΓΔ καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, καὶ ἔτι ἡ ΚΘ τῇ ΒΓ τὴν αὐτὴν ἕξει τάξιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

The square on a rational straight line, if applied to an apotome, produces as, breadth the binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of the apotome and in the same ratio; and further the binomial so arising has the same order as the apotome. Let A be a rational straight line and BD an apotome, and let the rectangle BD, KH be equal to the square on A, so that the square on the rational straight line A when applied to the apotome BD produces KH as breadth; I say that KH is a binomial straight line the terms of which are commensurable with the terms of BD and in the same ratio; and further KH has the same order as BD. For let DC be the annex to BD; therefore BC, CD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. [X. 73] Let the rectangle BC, G be also equal to the square on A. But the square on A is rational; therefore the rectangle BC, G is also rational. And it has been applied to the rational straight line BC; therefore G is rational and commensurable in length with BC. [X. 20] Since now the rectangle BC, G is equal to the rectangle BD, KH, therefore, proportionally, as CB is to BD, so is KH to G. [VI. 16] But BC is greater than BD; therefore KH is also greater than G. [V. 16, V. 14] Let KE be made equal to G; therefore KE is commensurable in length with BC. And since, as CB is to BD, so is HK to KE, therefore, convertendo, as BC is to CD, so is KH to HE. [V. 19, Por.] Let it be contrived that, as KH is to HE, so is HF to FE; therefore also the remainder KF is to FH as KH is to HE, that is, as BC is to CD. [V. 19] But BC, CD are commensurable in square only; therefore KF, FH are also commensurable in square only. [X. 11] And since, as KH is to HE, so is KF to FH, while, as KH is to HE, so is HF to FE, therefore also, as KF is to FH, so is HF to FE, [V. 11] so that also, as the first is to the third, so is the square on the first to the square on the second; [V. Def. 9] therefore also, as KF is to FE, so is the square on KF to the square on FH. But the square on KF is commensurable with the square on FH, for KF, FH are commensurable in square; therefore KF is also commensurable in length with FE, [X. 11] so that KF is also commensurable in length with KE. [X. 15] But KE is rational and commensurable in length with BC; therefore KF is also rational and commensurable in length with BC. [X. 12] And, since, as BC is to CD, so is KF to FH, alternately, as BC is to KF, so is DC to FH. [V. 16] But BC is commensurable with KF; therefore FH is also commensurable in length with CD. [X. 11] But BC, CD are rational straight lines commensurable in square only; therefore KF, FH are also rational straight lines [X. Def. 3] commensurable in square only; therefore KH is binomial. [X. 36] If now the square on BC is greater than the square on CD by the square on a straight line commensurable with BC, the square on KF will also be greater than the square on FH by the square on a straight line commensurable with KF. [X. 14] And, if BC is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, so also is KF; if CD is commensurable in length with the rational straight line set out, so also is FH, but, if neither of the straight lines BC, CD, then neither of the straight lines KF, FH. But, if the square on BC is greater than the square on CD by the square on a straight line incommensurable with BC, the square on KF is also greater than the square on FH by the square on a straight line incommensurable with KF. [X. 14] And, if BC is commensurable with the rational straight line set out, so also is KF; if CD is so commensurable, in length with the rational straight line set out, so also is FH; but, if neither of the straight lines BC, CD, then neither of the straight lines KF, FH.