Book 1 Proposition 39
Τὰ ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. Ἔστω ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ΑΒΓ, ΔΒΓ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη τῆς ΒΓ: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν. Ἐπεζεύχθω γὰρ ἡ ΑΔ: λέγω, ὅτι παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΔ τῇ ΒΓ. Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἤχθω διὰ τοῦ Α σημείου τῇ ΒΓ εὐθείᾳ παράλληλος ἡ ΑΕ, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθω ἡ ΕΓ. ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΑΒΓ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ: ἐπί τε γὰρ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεώς ἐστιν αὐτῷ τῆς ΒΓ καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις. ἀλλὰ τὸ ΑΒΓ τῷ ΔΒΓ ἐστιν ἴσον: καὶ τὸ ΔΒΓ ἄρα τῷ ΕΒΓ ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μεῖζον τῷ ἐλάσσονι: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον: οὐκ ἄρα παράλληλός ἐστιν ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΒΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδ' ἄλλη τις πλὴν τῆς ΑΔ: ἡ ΑΔ ἄρα τῇ ΒΓ ἐστι παράλληλος. Τὰ ἄρα ἴσα τρίγωνα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς αὐτῆς βάσεως ὄντα καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη καὶ ἐν ταῖς αὐταῖς παραλλήλοις ἐστίν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
Equal triangles which are on the same base and on the same side are also in the same parallels. Let ABC, DBC be equal triangles which are on the same base BC and on the same side of it; [I say that they are also in the same parallels.] And [For] let AD be joined; I say that AD is parallel to BC. For, if not, let AE be drawn through the point A parallel to the straight line BC, [I. 31] and let EC be joined. Therefore the triangle ABC is equal to the triangle EBC; for it is on the same base BC with it and in the same parallels. [I. 37] But ABC is equal to DBC; therefore DBC is also equal to EBC, [C.N. 1] the greater to the less: which is impossible. Therefore AE is not parallel to BC. Similarly we can prove that neither is any other straight line except AD; therefore AD is parallel to BC. Therefore etc.